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ܕ ܲܬܚܡܘܢܹܐ ܝܲܘܚ ܒܘܬ ܸܠܵܫܵܢܐ ܝܸܵܡܝܵܐ ܕܲܚ݇ܕ ܲܫܪܵܒܐ1 ܵܐܲܢܢܵܩܝܵܐ ܝܹܠܗ ܵܩܐ ܢܵܛܪܵܬܐ ܕܗܵܝܝܘܲܬܢ2 ܘܐܝܬܘܵܬܐ ܕܐܘܡܲܬܢ، ܸܒܪܵܓܵܫܐ ܝܲܘܚ ܕܟܵܬܵܒܐ ܘܵܟܬܲܘܒܘܵܬܐ ܡܢ ܡܠܘܹ̈ܐܹܐ ܲܐܠܵܨܹ̈ܝܹܐ3 ܝܵܢܐ ܒܵܐܵܗܐ ܲܪܗܵܛܐ. ܲܐܢܹܐ ܬܪܹܝܢ ܕܦܝܫܹܐ ܝܵܢܐ ܸܒܹ̈ܖܝܹܐ ܘܡܘܩܹ̈ܖܹܹܒܐ ܠܩܘܕܵܡܐ4 ܕܒܪܝܵܬܐ ܒܲܝܕ ܲܫܒܹ̈ܛܹܐ ܲܚܝܹܵ̈ܢܹܐ ܒܒܹܝܬ ܲܢܗܹ̈ܖܹܝܢ، ݇ܗܘܝܹܐ ܝܵܢܐ ܥܸܠܵܬܐ ܕܛܘܵܘܵܪܐ5 ܕܲܒܪܵܢܵܫܐ ܒܵܗܝ ܕܸܡܨܵܝܐ ܝܹܠܗ ܲܒܪܵܢܵܫܐ ܕܒܸܡܨܵܥܝܘܲܬܝܗܝ ܵܗܘܹܐ ܸܠܗ ܣܘܵܘܵܕܐ6 ܘܝܣܘܵܪܐ ܲܥܡ ܐܸܡܵܘܹ̈ܬܹܐ ܲܚܝܹܵ̈ܢܹܐ ܒܐܘܚܵܕܹ̈ܢܹܐ7 ܘܲܐܬܹ̈ܵܖܵܘܬܹܐ ܹܲ̈ܖܚܝܹܩܐ. ܘܲܐܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܝܣܘܹ̈ܖܹܐ ܵܠܐ ܲܐܚ̰ܟܝ ݇ܗܘܝܹܐ ܝܵܢܐ ܵܡܘܬܹ̈ܵܖܢܹܐ8 ܵܩܐ ܡܵܛܝܵܬܐ ܠܢܝܹ̈ܫܹܐ ܫܵܪܵܪܐ، ܥܵܒܵܕܐ1 ܐܝܬܘܵܬܐ، ܲܦܪܨܲܘܵܦܝܘܵܬܐ 2 مواد ضروری 3 ܵܩ݇ܕܡ 4 ܲܡܢܵܬܝܵܬܐ 5 ܲܗܡܲܙܡܵܬܐ، ܚܘܵܠܵܦܐ ܕܲܬܚܲܡܢܝܹܵ̈ܬܹܐ 6 ܕܘܵܟܐ، ܲܐܬܵܪܐ، ܲܡܲܗܠ 7 ܵܡܲܪܹ̈ܝ ܝܘܬܵܪܵܢܐ 8 ܫܡܝܪܡ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 34܇2018 2 ܐܸܩܢܘܡܝܵܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܘܫܘܵܝܵܫܝܹܹ̈ܐ9، ܐܸܵܠܐ ݇ܗܘܝܹܐ ܝܵܢܐ ܲܚ݇ܕ ܸܡܨܵܥܝܵܐ10 ܵܩܐ ܦܵܪܣܵܬܐ ܕܸܣܦܵܪܝܘܵܬܐ ܘܲܡܪܕܘܵܬܐ ܒܟܲܠܝܗܝ ܸܦܢܝܹܵ̈ܬܹܐ ܕܒܪܝܵܬܐ. ܒܘܬ ܵܐܲܢܢܵܩܝܘܵܬܐ ܕܟܵܬܒܵܬܐ ܘܟܵܬܵܒܐ ܲܒܝܵܢܬ11 ܲܥܡܹ̈ܵܖܢܹܐ ܕܹܒܝܬ ܲܢܗܹ̈ܖܹܝܢ ܲܡܠܝܵܢܵܬܐ ܝܵܠܲܗ ܕܵܬܲܢܚ ܕܵܐܢܝ ܟܹܐ ܵܣܓܕܝ ݇ܗܵܘܘ ܠܲܚ݇ܕܟܵܡܐ ܲܐܵܠܹ̈ܗܹܐ ܕܦܝܹ̈ܫܹܐ ݇ܗܵܘܘ ܝܕܝܥܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܲܐܝܟ ܲܣܢܵܕܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܕܟܵܬܒܵܬܐ ܘܸܡܲܢܝܗܝ ܝܵܢܐ: ܢܸܵܨܵܒܐ ܕܝ݇ܗܵܘܐ ܲܐܵܠܗܵܬܐ ܕܟܵܬܒܵܬܐ، ܸܚܫܒܘܵܢܐ ܘܲܗܪ ܒܵܗܝ ܥܵܕܵܢܐ ܵܣܦܪܵܬܐ12 ܕܲܐܵܠܹ̈ܗܹܐ ݇ܗܵܘܐ. ܐܘܦ ܲܒܪ-ܵܙܘܓܘܲܗ ܵܗܵܝܐ ܐܝܬ ݇ܗܵܘܐ ܹܠܗ ݇ܐܣܘܵܪܐ ܲܥܡ ܟܵܬܒܵܬܐ. ܲܐܵܠܵܗܐ ܵܢܝܒܘ ܙܸܐ ܦܝܵܵܫܐ ݇ܗܵܘܐ ܣܓܝܵܕܐ ܲܐܝܟ ܲܐܵܠܵܗܐ ܕܸܚܟܡܵܬܐ ܘܟܵܬܒܵܬܐ. ܫܘܡܝܹ̈ܵܖܝܹܐ ܵܐܢܝ ܲܩ݇ܕܵܡܝܹܹ̈ܐ ݇ܗܵܘܘ ܕܸܒܪܵܝܐ ܠ݇ܗܲܘܢ ܟܵܬܒܵܬܐ. ܵܐܢܝ ܟܹܐ ܵܟܬܒܝ ݇ܗܵܘܘ ܒܸܡܨܵܥܝܘܵܬܐ ܕܲܩܵܠܵܡܐ ܕܙܹܵܠܐ ܕܟܹܐ ܵܚܠܨܝ ݇ܗܵܘܘ ܹܠܗ ܹܝܵܡܐ13 ܕܟܵܬܒܵܬܐ ܦܝܵܫܐ ܝܹܠܗ ܲܥܠ ܠܘܵܚܐ ܕܛܝܵܢܐ؛ ܘܵܐܵܗܐ ܐܸܣܟ ܸܩܪܵܝܐ ܟܬܝܒܵܬܐ ܕܸܨܹ̈ܨܹܐ14. ܵܗܝܵܓܗ ܐܸܡܵܘܹ̈ܬܹܐ ݇ܐܸܚܹ݇̈ܖܢܹܐ ܫܩܝܵܠܐ ܠ݇ܗܲܘܢ ܵܐܵܗܐ ܟܬܝܒܵܬܐ ܘܒܲܡܥܲܒܪܵܬܐ ܕܲܚ݇ܕܟܵܡܐ ܫܘܚܵܠܹ̈ܦܹܐ ܲܥܠܘܲܗ ܦܲܘܠܝܬܝܵܩܝܹܹ̈ܐ 9 ܥܸܠܵܬܐ، ܸܡܢܕܝ ܕܵܦܐܸܫ ܡܘܦܸܠܵܚܐ ܵܩܐ ܲܡܓܲܡܪܵܬܐ ܕܲܚ݇ܕ ܫܘ݇ܓܵܠܐ 10 ܹܒܝܠ 11 ܵܟܬܲܘܒܵܬܐ 12 ܸܫܟܵܠܐ، ܸܦܨܵܠܐ 13 ܸܒܨܵܡܹ̈ܖܹܐ، ܡܝܹܹ̈ܚܐ 14 ܫܡܝܪܡ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 34܇2018 3 ܡܘܦܹܠܵܚܐ ܠ݇ܗܲܘܢ ܵܩܐ ܲܬܓܲܒܪܵܬܐ ܕܣܘܥܹ̈ܵܖܢܸܐ15 ܡܲܫܚܠܹ̈ܦܹܐ ܕܲܚܝܘܲܬܝܗܝ. ܦܘܢܝܵܩܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܫܩܝܵܠܐ ܠ݇ܗܲܘܢ ܟܬܝܒܵܬܐ ܕܸܨܹ̈ܨܹܐ ܡܢ ܫܘܡܝܹ̈ܵܖܝܹܐ ܘܒܪܹܐ ܠܗܲܘܢ ܠܵܗܝ ܵܐܲܠܦ ܹܒܝܬ ܲܩ݇ܕܵܡܝܵܬܐ ܕܒܪܝܵܬܐ. ܐܝܵܬܐ ܵܝܘܵܢܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܘܸܡܨܹ̈ܵܖܝܹܐ ܡܘܕܝܸܢܠ݇ܗܲܘܢ ܠܵܐܲܠܦ ܹܒܝܬ ܡܢ ܦܘܢܝܵܩܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܘܸܒܪܵܝܐ ܠ݇ܗܲܘܢ ܟܬܝܒܵܬܐ ܕܵܓܲܢܝܗܝ ܘܵܝܘܵܢܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܙܹܐ ܒܵܢܘܵܒܐ ܕܵܓܲܢܝܗܝ ܝܘܗܵܒܐ ܠ݇ܗܲܘܢ ܵܩܐ ܝܲܘܪܲܘܦ. ܵܗܝܵܓܗ ܲܒܪܵܢܵܫܐ ܡܨܹܐ ܹܠܗ ܕܵܟܬܸܒ ܠܲܬܫܥܝܬܘܗܝ، ܠܡܘܹ̈ܫܵܚܬܘܗܝ، ܠܲܗܹ̈ܩܲܝܬܘܗܝ ܘܠܹ̈ܖܸܢܝܘܗܝ16 ܘܵܫܢܹܐ ܠ݇ܗܲܘܢ17 ܠ݇ܐܸܚܹ݇̈ܖܢܹܐ ܘܵܗܕܵܟܐ ܒܪܹܐ ܹܠܗ ܠܟܵܬܵܒܐ. ܵܗܘ ܟܵܬܵܒܐ ܲܩ݇ܕܵܡܝܵܐ ܕܒܪܝܵܬܐ، ܫܲܘܥܝܵܬܐ18 ܕܓܸܠܵܓܸܡܫ ܝܹܠܗ ܕܦܝܵܫܐ ܝܹܠܗ ܟܬܝܵܒܐ 2700 ܸܫܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܩ.ܡ ܘܲܥܠ 12 ܠܘܹ̈ܚܹܐ ܕܛܝܵܢܐ. ܵܐܵܗܐ ܲܪܒ19 ܣܝܵܵܡܐ ܲܗܩܘܝܹܐ ܝܹܠܗ ܒܘܬ ܓܸܠܵܓܸܡܫ ܲܡܠܵܟܐ ܲܪܵܒܐ ܕܡܕܝ݇ܢܵܬܐ ܐܘܪܘܟ ܘܒܘܵܩܪܘܗܝ ܒܘܬ ܦܘܵܫܵܩܐ ܕܲܚܝܘܵܬܐ. ܵܐܫܘܪ ܵܒܢܸܲܦܥܠ، ܲܡܠܵܟܐ ܡܲܫܡܵܗܐ ܕܵܐܬܘܪ ̰ܟܸܡ ܨܵܦܝܝ ܪ݇ܓܝܵܫܐ ݇ܗܵܘܐ ܠܵܐܵܗܐ ܫܵܪܵܪܐ ܕܟܵܬܵܒܐ ܵܗܘ ܸܡܨܵܥܝܵܐ ܒܘܫ ܚܫܝܵܚܐ ܝܹܠܗ ܵܩܐ ܢܵܛܪܵܬܐ ܫܘ݇ܓܵܠܹ̈ܢܹܐ، ܥܵܒܹ̈ܕܹܐ 15 ܲܬܚܲܡܢܝܵܬܘܗܝ 16 ܵܣܹܦܐ ܠ݇ܗܲܘܢ 17 ܲܡܬܵܠܐ، ܬܘܵܢܝܵܐ 18 ܣܝܵܵܡܐ ̰ܟܸܡ ܥܸܵܠܝܵܐ 19 ܫܡܝܪܡ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 34܇2018 4 ܕܝܘܪܵܬܵܢܐ20 ܕܐܸܡܦܵܪܛܘܪܘܬܘܗܝ ܗ.ܕ. ܸܣܦܵܪܝܘܵܬܐ ܘܲܬܫܥܝܵܬܐ، ܘܒܘܬ ܵܐܵܗܐ ܫܘܬܐܸܵܣܐ ܹܠܗ ܵܗܝ ܹܒܝܬ ܲܐܹ̈ܖܟܹܐ ܲܩ݇ܕܵܡܝܵܬܐ ܕܒܪܝܵܬܐ ܒܲܐܪܸܫܵܟܝܬܹܗ21 ܗ.ܕ. ܢܝܢܘܹܐ ܕܐܝܬ ݇ܗܵܘܘ ܲܝܬܝܪ22 ܡܢ 30000 ܟܵܬܹܹ̈ܒܐ ܵܓܘܘܲܗ. ܘܹܠܐ ܝܹܠܗ ܒܨܝܵܪܐ ܲܕܪܵܓܐ ܕܟܵܬܵܒܐ ܲܥܡ ܥܵܒܪܵܬܐ ܕܲܙܒܵܢܐ، ܐܸܵܠܐ ܙܝܵܕܐ ܝܹܠܗ ܠܸܟܣ ܟܲܠܝܗܝ ܵܐܢܝ ܕܦܵܣܵܥܐ23 ܝܵܢܐ ܒܐܘܪܵܚܐ ܕܩܵܢܝܵܬܐ ܕܝܘܠܵܦܵܢܐ ܘܲܡ݇ܫ̰ܲܟܚܵܬܐ ܕܦܘܵܢܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܵܩܐ ܫܘܵܐܲܠܝܗܝ ܒܘܬ ܟܠ ܲܚ݇ܕ ܓܸܵܒܐ ܕܲܚܝܘܵܬܐ. ܘܲܗܪ ܒܵܗܝ ܥܵܕܵܢܐ ܟܵܬܵܒܐ ܩܘܒܵܠܐ ܝܹܠܗ ܫܘܚܵܠܹ̈ܦܹܐ ܬܸܟܢܲܘܠܲܘ̰ܓܝܵܩܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܘܚܕܝܵܪܐ ܝܹܠܗ ܠܟܵܬܵܒܐ ܐܸܸܠܟܬܪܲܘܢܝܵܩܝܵܐ ܕܒܲܚ݇ܕ ܛܝܵܡܐ ܒܘܫ ܵܒܨܲܘܵܪܐ ܘܵܓܘ ܲܚ݇ܕ ܸܡܬܵܚܐ ܒܘܫ ܸܟܪܵܝܐ ܡܵܛܝܵܐ ܝܹܠܗ ܠܐܝܵܕܐ ܕܵܩܹ̈ܖܲܘܝܹܐ. ܲܗܪ ܵܗܕܵܟܐ ܒܲܪܗܵܛܐ ܕܢܵܛܪܵܬܐ ܘܲܡܲܠܦܵܬܐ ܕܸܠܵܫܵܢܐ ܝܸܵܡܝܵܐ ܕܲܚ݇ܕ ܢܝܵܫܐ ܐܘܣܝܵܝܵܐ24 ܝܹܠܗ ܵܩܐ ܐܘܡܵܬܐ ܵܐܬܘܵܪܝܵܬܐ، ܟܵܬܵܒܐ ܐܝܬ ܹܠܗ ܲܚ݇ܕ ܵܫܘܵܦܐ ̰ܟܸܡ ܵܐܲܢܢܵܩܝܵܐ ܒܵܗܝ ܕ̰ܟܘ ܲܚ݇ܕ ܸܠܵܫܵܢܐ ܹܠܐ ܵܐܬܹܐ ܠܲܡܠܘܦܹܐ ܕܵܠܐ ܲܡܦܲܠܚܵܬܐ ܕܟܵܬܵܒܐ ܘܟܵܬܒܵܬܐ. ܵܝܪܬܘܵܬܐ 20 ܡܕܝ݇ܢܵܬܐ ܒܝܫ ܵܐܲܢܢܲܩܝܵܬܐ ܕܲܚ݇ܕ ܲܐܬܵܪܐ 21 ܵܙܘܵܕܐ 22 ܸܒܫܵܩܵܠܐ ܝܵܢܐ ܵܦܣܲܘܥܵܬܐ، ܸܒܐܵܙܵܠܐ ܝܵܢܐ 23 ܲܫܬܐܸܵܣܝܵܐ 24 ܫܡܝܪܡ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 34܇2018 5 ܚܫܝܚܵܬܐ ܝܵܠܲܗ ܠܲܡܕܟܘܪܹܐ ܕܲܡܲܠܦܵܬܐ ܕܸܠܵܫܵܢܐ ܵܗܝ ܥܵܕܵܢܐ ܸܒܕ ܵܗܘܹܐ ܵܠܲܗ ܲܡܥܒܵܕܢܘܵܬܐ25 ܕܵܩܢܛܪܸܵܢܲܗ ܲܥܠ ܲܫܒܹ̈ܖܹܐ ܕܐܘܡܲܬܢ ܒܵܗܝ ܕܐܹܢ ܵܠܐ ܵܝܠܲܦܚ ܹܠܗ ܲܚ݇ܕ ܸܠܵܫܵܢܐ ܒܲܫܒܪܘܵܬܐ ܘܵܠܐ ܲܗܡܙܸܲܡܚ ܒܝܹܗ، ܹܠܐ ܵܥܸܒܪ ܵܓܘ ܲܡܕܲܥܢ ܘܵܓܘ ܸܠܲܒܢ ܘܹܠܐ ܵܡܲܨܚ ܲܡܦܸܠܲܚܚܹܠܗ ܵܠܐ ܵܩܐ ܲܗܡܲܙܡܵܬܐ ܘܵܠܐ ܙܹܐ ܵܩܐ ܫܘ݇ܓܵܠܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܐܘܵܡܵܢܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܘܵܣܦܹ̈ܵܖܝܹܐ. ܕܵܠܐ ̰ܟܘ ܦܘܵܫܵܟܐ26 ܒܫܒܝܵܠܐ ܕܲܡܲܠܦܵܬܐ ܕܸܠܵܫܵܢܐ ܝܸܵܡܝܵܐ، ܲܡܪܲܝܙܵܬܐ ܕܸܣܕܹ̈ܖܹܐ27 ܘܲܗܲܕܪܵܬܐ ܕܸܡܨܵܥܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܠܚܝܹܹ̈ܡܐ ܕܝܵܠܦܵܬܐ، ܵܐܢ݇ܝ ܵܐܲܢܢܹܹ̈ܩܐ28 ̰ܟܸܡ ܝܕܝܥܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܝܵܢܐ. ܐܝܵܢܐ ܚܵܕܐ ܣܢܝܩܘܵܬܐ ܒܘܫ ܵܐܲܢܢܵܩܝܵܬܐ ܒܵܐܵܗܐ ܫܒܝܵܠܐ، ܲܗܲܕܪܵܬܐ ܕܟܵܬܹܹ̈ܒܐ ܲܚ݇ܕܹ̈ܬܹܐ )ܸܒܚܵܒܵܫܐ ܡܢ ܲܗܩܲܝܹ̈ܬܹܐ، ܡܘܫܵܚܹ̈ܬܹܐ، ܲܬܫܥܝܵܬܐ( ܝܵܠܲܗ ܕܵܠܐ ܲܐܚ̰ܟܝ ܵܦܝܫܝ ܡܘܦܹܠܹܹ̈ܚܐ ܵܓܘ ܸܣܕܹ̈ܖܹܐ، ܐܸܵܠܐ ܵܡܛܝ ܒܐܝܵܕܐ ܕܲܫܒܹܲ̈ܖܢ، ܥܲܠܝܹ̈ܲܡܢ ܘܥܲܠܝܹ̈ܵܡܲܬܢ ܕܵܠܐ ܵܡܢܫܝ ܹܠܗ ܵܗܘ ܸܠܵܫܵܢܐ ܕܸܩܪܝܘܗܝ ܝܵܢܐ ܒܸܣܕܹ̈ܖܹܐ ܕܸܠܵܫܵܢܐ ܝܸܵܡܝܵܐ. ܲܡܪܲܝܙܵܬܐ ܕܚܘܹ̈ܖܙܹܐ ܵܩܐ ܲܡܕܵܥܝܵܬܐ ܕܟܵܬܹܹ̈ܒܐ ܲܚ݇ܕܹ̈ܬܹܐ ܘܲܗܪ ܵܗܕܵܟܐ ܲܡܪܲܝܙܵܬܐ ܕܡܘܹ̈ܵܖܝܹܐ29 ܵܩܐ ܵܟܬܲܘܹܹ̈ܒܐ ܡܢ ܐܘܹ̈ܖܵܚܹ̈ܬܹܐ ܵܡܘܬܹ̈ܵܖܢܹܐ ܝܵܢܐ ܵܩܐ ܡܲܠܲܒܒܵܬܐ30 ܕܥܲܠܝܡܘܲܬܢ ܒܟܵܬܒܵܬܐ ܕܟܵܬܹܹ̈ܒܐ ܲܚ݇ܕܹ̈ܬܹܐ ܕܵܕܒܩܝ ܲܥܡ ܵܟܐܪ 25 ܫܝܟܘܵܬܐ 26 ܟܵܠܹܹ̈ܣܐ 27 ܸܡܢܕܵܝܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܵܐܲܢܢܵܩܝܹܹ̈ܐ 28 Competition،ܟܘܵܬܵܫܐ 29 ܲܝܗܲܒܠܵܬܐ ܕ̰ܓܘܪܲܐܬ 30 ܫܡܝܪܡ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 34܇2018 6 ܲܙܒܵܢܐ ܲܚ݇ܕܵܬܐ ܘܛܘܵܘܪܘܗܝ، ܘܵܡܨܝ ܵܗܘܝ ܠ݇ܗܲܘܢ ܲܡܲܥܒܵܕܢܘܵܬܐ ܲܥܠ ܲܫܒܹܲ̈ܖܢ ܕܸܒܕ ܲܓܪܸܘܣܝ ܘܸܒܕ ܵܒܢܝ ܵܠܲܗ ܲܕܥܬܝܕ ܕܐܘܡܲܬܢ. ܘܐܸܢ ܵܡܢܲܬܚ ܒܵܐܵܗܐ ܲܪܗܵܛܐ ܹܠܐ ܵܦܐܸܫ ܢܸܫܝܵܐ ܸܠܵܫܲܢܢ ܡܩܘܕܵܫܐ ܘܹܠܐ ܵܛܠܵܩܐ ܗܵܝܝܘܲܬܢ ܵܐܬܘܵܪܝܵܬܐ. ܵܐܡܝܢ ܡܒܘܹ̈ܥܐ: ܫܡܝܪܡ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 34܇2018 7 ̰ܦܪܝܕܘܢ ܐܬܘܪܝܐ ܫܡܝܪܡ ܕ.ܦܘܪܝܐܢ ܵܐܣܝܵܐ ̰ܦܪܹܝܕܘܢ ܹܒܝܬ ܲܐܒܵܪܡ)ܲܐܒܵܪܵܗܡ( ܵܐܬܘܵܪܵܝܐ ܕܲܚ݇ܕ ܵܐܣܝܵܐ، ܵܣܝܲܘܵܡܐ ܘܵܥܒܲܘܵܕܐ ܦܲܘܠܝܬܝܵܩܝܵܐ ݇ܗܵܘܐ، ܦܝܫܹܠܗ ܝܠܝܵܕܐ ܒܵܡܵܬܐ ܕ̰ܵܟܪܲܒܚܫ ܵܓܘ ܡܕܝ݇ܢܵܬܐ ܕܐܘܪܡܝ ܒܲܐܬܵܪܐ ܕܐܝܵܪܢ ܒܸܫ݇ܢܵܬܐ 1891. ܵܗܘ ܒܪܲܘܵܢܐ ܕܲܝܥܩܲܘܒ ܹܒܝܬ ܲܐܒܲܪܡ ܘܐܸܢܵܣ̰ܦ ܲܬܝܡܘܵܪܙ ܝ݇ܗܵܘܐ. ܵܒ݇ܬܪ ܵܡܘܵܬܐ ܕܝܸܹܡܗ ܲܗܪ ܲܟܕ ܙܥܲܘܵܪܐ ܦܝܫܹܠܗ ܫܘܕܵܪܐ ܕܵܚܝܹܐ ܲܥܡ ܵܚܠܘܗܝ31 ܒܡܕܝ݇ܢܵܬܐ ܕܬܸܦܠܝܣ ܒܲܐܬܵܪܐ ܕܓܘܪ̰ܓܸܣܵܬܢ)ܪܘܣܝܵܐ(. ܵܬܵܡܐ ܡܢ ܵܒ݇ܬܪ ܲܦܲܪܩܵܬܐ ܕܕܘܵܪܫܹܗ ܒܲܪܗܵܛܐ ܲܫܪܵܘܵܝܐ، ܬܘܸܡܡ ܹܠܗ ܠܝܘܠܵܦܢܹܗ ܒܲܚܩܵܠܐ ܕܵܐܣܝܘܵܬܐ ܵܓܘ ܹܒܝܬ ܵܨܘܹܹ̈ܒܐ ܕܵܣܵܪܬܲܘܒ ܘܵܚܪܟܲܘ̰ܦ ܒܸܫ݇ܢܵܬܐ ܵܚܠܘܘܘܗܝ 31 ܫܡܝܪܡ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 34܇2018 8 1915 ܘܦܝܫܹܠܗ ܓܘܒܝܵܐ ܲܐܝܟ ܡܲܕܒܵܪܵܢܐ ܕܹܒܝܬ ܟܹ̈ܖܝܗܹܐ ܕܐܘܪܵܚܐ ܕܦܪܸܙܵܠܐ ܕܩܲܘܵܩܙܵܝܐ ܲܓܪܒܝܵܝܵܬܐ ܘܲܬܝܡܵܢܝܵܬܐ. ܵܗܘ ܦܠܝܚܹܠܗ ܲܐܝܟ ܵܐܣܝܵܐ ܵܓܘ ܲܓܝܵܣܐ32 ܪܘܣܵܢܝܵܐ ܘܵܒ݇ܬܪ ܵܗܵܕܐ ܦܝܫܹܠܗ ܫܘܕܵܪܐ ܠܐܝܵܪܢ ܕܵܢܸܩܦ33 ܠܲܓܝܵܣܐ ܪܘܣܵܢܝܵܐ ܒܐܝܵܪܢ ܲܐܝܟ ܲܚ݇ܕ ܵܐܣܝܵܐ ܘܲܐܚܝܵܕܐ34 ܦܲܘܠܝܬܝܵܩܝܵܐ. ܒܐܘܪܡܝ، ܵܗܘ ܫܘܬܐܸܣܹܠܗ ܠܣܝܥܵܬܐ ܐܘܡܵܬܵܢܝܵܬܐ ܵܐܬܘܵܪܝܵܬܐ ܘܫܘܕܸܪܹܗ 250 ܥܲܠܝܹܹ̈ܡܐ ܵܐܬܘܹ̈ܵܖܝܹܐ ܠܪܘܣܝܵܐ ܕܵܩܢܝ ܬܘܠܵܡܵܕܐ 35ܲܓܝܵܣܝܵܐ. ܵܒ݇ܬܪ ܩܝܵܵܡܐ36 ܕ1917 ܕܹ̈ܖܘܣܵܢܝܹܐ ̰ܦܪܹܝܕܘܢ ܵܐܬܘܵܪܵܝܐ، ܸܒܢܝܵܡܝܢ ܲܐܪܣܢܝܣ ܘܵܐܣܝܵܐ ܵܒܵܒܐ ܹܒܝܬ ܲܦܪܵܗܕ ܫܘܬܐܸܣܠ݇ܗܲܘܢ ܠܲܓܵܒܐ ܵܫܘܵܬܵܦܝܵܐ)ܣܲܘܣܝܵܠܝܣܵܛܝܵܐ( ܵܐܬܘܵܪܵܝܐ ܲܩ݇ܕܵܡܝܵܐ. ̰ܦܪܹܝܕܘܢ ܵܐܬܘܵܪܵܝܐ ܦܪܝܣܹܠܗ ܠܒܘܵܝܵܢܐ37 ܕ"ܵܐܬܘܪ ܸܚܐܪܵܬܐ ܘܡܚܘܝܸܕܵܬܐ" ܒܡܕܝ݇ܢܵܬܐ ܕܐܘܪܡܝ ܕܦܝܫܹܠܗ ܸܩܪܵܝܐ ܒܘܵܝܵܢܐ ܕܐܘܪܡܝ ܕܝ݇ܗܵܘܐ ܟܬܝܵܒܐ ܒܸܠܵܫܵܢܐ ܵܐܬܘܵܪܵܝܐ ܣܵܘܵܕܵܝܐ. ܒܘܵܝܵܢܐ ܥܗܝܵܕܐ ܲܦܫܘܹܩܐ ܝܹܠܗ ܕܢܝܵܫܐ ܕܚܘܵܝܵܕܐ ܕܵܐܬܘܪ ܚܹܐܪܵܬܐ، ܲܫܬܲܐܣܵܬܐ ܕܫܘܠܵܛܵܢܐ ܵܝܵܬܵܝܐ38 ܵܐܬܘܵܪܵܝܐ ܝܹܠܗ ܒܲܕܥܬܝܕ ܘܒܐܘܚܵܕܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܩܲܘܫܘܢ 32 ܵܙܝܸܕ، ܲܙܘܸܓ 33 34 Officer ܝܘܠܵܦܵܢܐ 35 ܫܙܚܵܠܵܦܐ ܕܚܘܟܵܡܐ ܒܲܚܝܵܠܐ ܕܵܥܠܵܡܐ 36 ܵܡܘܕܵܥܢܘܵܬܐ، ܲܡܚܲܒܪܵܬܐ 37 ܚܘܟܵܡܐ ܚܸܐܵܪܐ ܕܵܗܘܹܐ ܸܟܠܝܵܐ ܲܥܠ ܲܐܩܵܠܐ ܕܵܓܢܘܗܝ 38 ܫܡܝܪܡ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 34܇2018 9 ܕܐܘܪܡܝ، ܵܡܘܸܨܠ، ܛܘܪܲܥܒܕܝܢ، ܢܨܝܒܝܢ، ܲܓܲܙܪܵܬܐ ܘ̰ܓܘܵܠܲܡܪܓ ܘܒܲܐܘܝܘܵܬܐ39 ܐܸܩܢܘܡܝܵܝܵܬܐ ܘܲܓܝܵܣܝܵܬܐ ܲܥܡ ܪܘܣܝܵܐ ܚܹܐܪܵܬܐ. ܵܒ݇ܬܪ ܸܫ݇ܢܵܬܐ 1918، ܵܡܘܬܵܒܐ ܐܘܡܵܬܵܢܝܵܐ ܵܐܬܘܵܪܵܝܐ ܕܬܚܘܬ ܲܬܓܒܵܪܢܘܵܬܐ ܕܵܐܣܝܵܐ ̰ܦܪܹܝܕܘܢ ݇ܗܵܘܐ، ܫܘܢܹܐ ܹܠܗ ܠܬܝܦܠܝܣ ܘܵܗܘ ܦܝܫܹܠܗ ܡܘܟܠܝܵܐ ܡܢ ܦܘܠܵܚܢܹܗ ܒܵܡܘܬܵܒܐ ܥܗܝܵܕܐ ܘܵܗܝܵܓܗ ܕܸܪܵܝܐ ܒܒܹܝܬ ܚܒܘܫܝܵܐ40 ܒܵܐܵܗܐ ܚܘܵܫܵܒܐ ܕܵܓܫܲܘܵܫܐ41 ܕܐܸܢܓܠܝܣܵܢܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܝܹܠܗ. ܒܸܫ݇ܢܵܬܐ 1921 ܵܗܘ ܚܘܸܦܛܹܠܗ ܠܲܡܩܲܒܠܵܬܐ ܕܲܘܙܝܪܘܵܬܐ ܲܒܵܪܝܵܬܐ42 ܕܚܘܵܝܵܕܐ ܕܩܘܛܹ̈ܢܹܐ43 ܣܲܘܒܝܸܵܬܹ̈ܝܹܐ ܵܫܘܵܬܵܦܝܹܹ̈ܐ )اتحاد جماهیر شوروی سوسیالیستی( ܵܩܐ ܲܡܕܲܝܪܵܬܐ ܕܵܐܬܘܹ̈ܵܖܝܹܐ ܠܐܘܪܡܝ ܘܵܣܵܠܲܡܣ ܐܝܵܢܐ ܵܠܐ ܡܘܢܬܹܐ ܹܠܗ ܒܢܝܫܹܗ. ܒܸܫ݇ܢܵܬܐ 1924 ܡܙܘܸܘܓܹܠܗ ܲܥܡ ܡܲܝܲܩܪܵܬܐ ܣܲܘܢܝܵܐ ܘܵܩܡ ܵܗܘܹܐ ܹܠܗ ܲܚ݇ܕ ܒܪܲܘܵܢܐ)ܲܣܪܓܲܘܢ( ܘܚܵܕܐ ܒܵܪܵܬܐ)ܢܹܝܠܠܝ(. ܐܝܵܢܐ ܵܩܐ ܵܓܵܗܐ ܬܲܪܵܝܢܝܵܬܐ ܦܝܫܹܠܗ ܕܸܪܵܝܐ ܵܓܘ ܹܒܝܬ ܚܒܘܫܝܵܐ ܘܫܘܢܹܐ ܹܠܗ ܡܢ ܵܐܵܗܐ ܵܥܠܵܡܐ ܵܓܘ ܲܫܘܝܘܬ ܵܩܵܠܐ، هماهنگی 39 ܕܘܟܵܬܐ ܕܲܚܵܡܝܵܬܐ ܕܲܐܣܝܹ̈ܖܹܐ 40 ܵܗܘ ܕܟܹܐ ܲܨܚܨܹܐ ܵܩܐ ܲܡܫ̰ܲܟܚܵܬܐ ܕܫܘܘܵܕܥܹܹ̈ܐ ܛܹܫܝܹܹ̈ܐ 41 ܲܘܙܝܪܘܵܬܐ ܕܠܲܒܲܕܪ ܡܢ ܲܐܬܵܪܐ 42 Republic،̰ܓܿܘܡܗܼܘܪܝ 43 ܫܡܝܪܡ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 34܇2018 10 ܹܒܝܬ ܚܒܘܫܝܵܐ ܘܦܝܫܵܬܐ ܝܵܠܲܗ ܚܫܝܒܵܬܐ ܕܵܗܘܹܐ ܦܝܵܫܐ ܡܣܘܸܡܵܢܐ ܲܝܢ ܬܸܠܝܵܐ. ܒܲܚܩܵܠܐ ܕܵܣܦܵܪܝܘܵܬܐ، ̰ܦܪܹܝܕܘܢ ܵܐܬܘܵܪܵܝܐ ܟܬܝܵܒܐ ܝܹܠܗ ܠܲܚ݇ܕ ܸܡܢܝܵܵܢܐ ܕܡܘܫܵܚܹ̈ܬܹܐ ܐܘܡܵܬܵܢܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܕܸܡܲܢܝܗܝ ܝܵܢܐ ܡܫܲܘܚܵܬܐ ܵܩܵܠܐ ܕܲܩܪܵܢܐ ܘܡܫܲܘܚܵܬܐ ܵܝܐ ܢܸܫܵܪܐ ܕܬܚܘܹܹ̈ܡܐ. ܵܗܘ ܟܹܐ ܵܟܬܸܒ ݇ܗܵܘܐ ܒܡܲܓܠܵܬܐ ܕܵܟܘܟܵܒܐ ܕܡܗܲܘܪܸܵܫܐ، ܛܒܝܵܥܐ ݇ܗܵܘܐ ܠܡܲܓܠܵܬܐ ܕܵܢܩܲܘܵܫܐ، ܘܵܣܝܲܘܵܡܐ ݇ܗܵܘܐ ܒܡܲܓܠܝܹܵ̈ܬܹܐ "ܵܢܩܲܘܵܫܐ" ܘ"ܵܩܵܠܐ ܕܲܩܪܵܢܐ". ܵܐܦ ܡܫܘܬܐܸܵܣܐ ݇ܗܵܘܐ ܹܒܝܬ ܲܐܹ̈ܖܟܹܐ ܒܡܕܝܵܢܹ̈ܬܹܐ ܕܡܲܘܣܟܲܘܒ ܘܬܝܦܠܝܣ. ܡܒܘܹ̈ܥܐ: 1-ܬܫܥܝܬܐ ܕܣܦܪܝܘܬܐ ܐܬܘܪܝܬܐ܇ܐܣܝܐ ܦܐܪܐ ܣܪܡܣ܇ܣܦܪܐ 1 ܦ 231 2- ̰ܦܪܝܕܘܢ ܐܬܘܪܝܐ܇ܡܠܦܢܐ ܐܢܘܪ ܐܬܘ܇ܡܓܠܬܐ ܐܹ̈ܫܠܝ ܢܨܒܐ܇ܕܘܒܩܐ ܬܪܝܢܐ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 1܇ܦܐܬܐ 175 ܫܡܝܪܡ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 34܇2018 11 ܢܫܪܐ ܕܬܚܘܡܐ ̰ܦܪܝܕܘܢ ܐܬܘܪܝܐ ܵܝܐ ܢܸܫܵܪܐ ܕܬܚܘܹܹ̈ܡܐ: ܲܡܠܵܟܐ ܕܵܓܘ ܲܛܝܹ̈ܖܹܐ ܦܬܘܚܠ݇ܗܲܘܢ ܓܘܠܵܦܢܘܟ: ܵܦܪܸܚܢ ܲܠܛܝܵܪܝ ܡܢ ܲܐܪܒܝܠ ܠܡܲܘܨܘܠ: ܬܸܪܲܘܝ ܲܒܪܵܘܹ̈ܖܹܐ ܵܦܪܸܩܢ ܠܸܡܲܠܬܝ: ܵܐܬܘܪ ܲܥܬܝܩܵܬܐ ܵܓܘ ܢܝܢܘܹܐ ܒܵܨܸܠܢ: ܐܘܦ ܨܠܲܘܵܬܐ ܒܵܨܸܠܢ ܠܦܘܪܵܩܵܢܐ ܕܝܸܡܝ: ܡܢ ܲܦܓܪܝ ܘܕܸܡܝ ܦܬܲܘܚܠ݇ܗܲܘܢ ܓܘܠܵܦܢܘܟ: ܲܓ݇ܢܵܒܵܪܐ ܕܢܵܚܵܫܐ ܐܘܦ ܦܣܝܥ ܵܠܲܩ݇ܕܵܡܐ: ܕܵܠܐ ܥܝܩܘܝ ܘܲܚܵܫܐ ܲܣܚܸܒܪ ܲܥܠ ܲܓܒܵܪܐ: ܲܙܚܵܡܐ ܘܲܦܵܠܵܫܐ ܕܒܝܲܚܝܗܝ ܝܹܠܗ ܲܚܝܘܗܝ: ܵܩܐ ܵܐܬܘܪ ܫܒܝܚܵܬܐ ܕܟܝܪܲܘܢ ܒܘܵܣܵܡܐ: ܸܒܕ ܵܕܪܸܢ ܫܵܠܵܡܐ ܲܥܠ ܲܩܒܹܲ̈ܖܝܗܝ ܵܒܸܟܢ: ܡܲܫܪܵܫܝܬܝ ܒܵܢܝܸܚܢ ܫܡܝܪܡ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 34܇2018 12 ܒܘܝܢܐ ܕܐܘܪܡܝ ܠܡܚܝܕܬܐ ܕܚܘܝܕܐ ܕܐܬܘܪ ܚܐܪܬܐ 1- ܢܝܵܫܐ ܘܵܘ̰ܓܝܒܘܵܬܐ ܕܚܘܵܝܵܕܐ ܕܵܐܬܘܪ ܸܚܐܪܵܬܐ ݇ܗܘܵܝܐ ܝܹܠܗ: ܠܲܫܬܲܐܣܵܬܐ ܒܲܕܥܬܝܕ ܲܚ݇ܕ ܫܘܠܵܛܵܢܐ)ܗܘܟܵܡܐ( ܐܘܡܵܬܵܢܝܵܐ ܕܹܒܐܵܬܵܝܐ ܝܵܢܐ: ܐܘܪܡܝ، ܵܡܘܸܨܠ، ܛܘܪ ܲܥܒܕܝܢ، ܢܨܝܒܹܝܢ، ̰ܲܓܙܝܵܪܐ ܘ̰ܓܘܵܠܲܡܪܓ. ܘܲܗܪ ܒܵܗܝ ܥܵܕܵܢܐ ܙܹܐ ܥܵܒܪܵܬܐ ܘܲܚܲܝܕܵܬܐ ܲܥܡ ܪܘܣܝܵܐ ܵܓܘ ܲܚ݇ܕ ܚܘܵܝܵܕܐ. 2- ܟܵܠܝܹܵ̈ܬܹܐ ܦܲܘܠܝܛܝܵܩܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܕܵܐܬܘܪ ܚܹܐܪܵܬܐ ܸܒܕ ܵܦܝܫܝ ܸܒܢܝܹܹ̈ܐ)ܡܘܒܢܝܹܹ̈ܐ( ܲܥܠ ܸܒܢܲܝܬ ܕܟܢܘܫܝܵܐ ܪܸܵܫܝܵܐ ܐܘܡܵܬܵܢܝܵܐ: ܲܐܝܢܝ ܕܸܒܕ ܵܦܸܠܚ ܲܐܝܟ ܲܚ݇ܕ ܓܘܫܵܡܐ ܲܡܒܪܵܝܵܢܐ)ܲܡܪܝܸܵܙܵܢܐ( ܕܵܩܢܲܘܹ̈ܢܹܐ: ܘܲܗܪ ܵܐܵܗܐ ܓܘܫܵܡܐ ܵܗܘܹܐ ܲܬܸܡܵܡܵܢܐ ܕܟܲܠܝܗܝ ܦܘܩܵܕܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܕܲܬܓܒܵܪܵܢܐ ܐܘܦ ܕܲܘܙܝܹ̈ܖܹܐ. 3- ܲܩܝܘܹܹ̈ܡܐ ܐܘܡܵܬܵܢܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܵܓܵܘܐ ܕܟܢܘܫܝܵܐ ܪܸܵܫܝܵܐ ܐܘܡܵܬܵܢܝܵܐ ܸܒܕ ܵܦܝܫܝ ܓܘܒܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܒܐܘܪܵܚܐ ܕܵܓܲܒܝܵܬܐ ܕܟܹܠܗ ܲܥܡܵܡܐ ܕܵܠܐ ܗܸ̰ܟ ܦܘܪܫܘܢܝܵܐ ܘܕܵܠܐ ܵܓܲܫܩܵܬܐ ܲܥܠ ܕܝܵܠܝܹܵ̈ܬܹܐ ܲܐܝܟ ܵܬܘܕܝܵܬܐ: ܲܕܪܵܓܐ ܵܓܘ ܵܫܘܵܬܦܘܵܬܐ: ܟܵܠܣ ܕܸܡܲܠܬ ܲܝܢ ܓܸܢܵܣܐ. ܫܡܝܪܡ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 34܇2018 13 ܙܘܵܗܵܪܐ ܕ1: ܟܠ ܲܚ݇ܕ ܲܦܪܨܲܘܵܦܐ ܕܸܡܛܝܵܐ ܝܹܠܗ ܲܥܠ 20 ܸܫܹ̈ܢܹܐ: ܐܝܬ ܹܠܗ ܲܗܩܘܵܬܐ ܕܵܓܲܒܝܵܬܐ ܕܲܩܝܲܘܵܡܐ ܕܟܢܘܫܝܵܐ ܪܸܵܫܝܵܐ ܐܘܡܵܬܵܢܝܵܐ. ܙܘܵܗܵܪܐ ܕ2: ܟܠ ܲܚ݇ܕ ܲܦܪܨܲܘܵܦܐ ܕܝܹܠܗ ܡܢ 35 ܲܗܠ 60 ܸܫܹ̈ܢܹܐ: ܐܝܬ ܹܠܗ ܲܗܩܘܵܬܐ ܕܵܦܐܹܫ ܓܘܒܝܵܐ ܲܐܝܟ ܲܩܝܲܘܵܡܐ ܕܟܢܘܫܝܵܐ. 4- ܲܗܩܘܵܬܐ ܕܵܐܵܓܵܠܹ̈ܖܹܐ44 ܠܵܡܪܘܵܬܐ ܕܲܥܦܵܪܐ: ܸܒܕ ܵܦܝܵܫܐ ܫܩܝܠܵܬܐ ܸܡܲܢܝܗܝ ܘܝܘܗܸܒܠܵܬܐ ܵܩܐ ܫܘܠܵܛܵܢܐ ܲܥܡܵܡܝܵܐ: ܵܩܐ ܕܵܐܢܝ ܕܲܒܪܸܒܙܝ)ܵܝܗܒܝ( ܲܐܹ̈ܖܵܥܬܹܐ ܲܐܝܟ ܲܡܚܲܫܚܵܬܐ ܕܝܲܝܝܗܝ. 5- ܟܲܠܝܗܝ ܲܐܹ̈ܖܵܥܬܹܐ ܕܵܐܵܓܵܠܹ̈ܖܹܐ: ܕܦܝܹ̈ܫܹܐ ܝܵܢܐ ܙܘܒܸܛܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܒܝܲܝܝܗܝ ܒܲܙܒܹ̈ܢܹܐ: ܒܐܘܪܵܚܐ ܕܲܚܝܵܠܐ ܘܕܵܠܐ ܲܗܩܘܵܬܐ: ܸܒܕ ܵܦܝܫܝ ܫܩܝܹܹ̈ܠܐ ܸܡܲܢܝܗܝ: ܕܵܠܐ ܵܓܲܫܩܵܬܐ ܲܥܠ ܓܸܢܵܣܐ ܕܵܡܵܪܐ ܕܥܘܦܵܪܐ. ܲܐܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܲܐܹ̈ܖܵܥܬܹܐ: ܸܒܕ ܵܗܘܝ ܡܘܠܵܟܐ ܘܵܡܐܠ ܕܟܹܠܗ ܕܲܥܡܵܡܐ: ܘܒܦܘܩܵܕܵܢܐ ܕܫܘܠܵܛܵܢܐ ܲܥܡܵܡܝܵܐ: ܸܒܕ ܵܦܝܫܝ ܝܘܗܹܒܐ ܵܩܐ ܲܐܵܟܹ̈ܖܹܐ ܕܲܡܦܸܠܚܝ ܠ݇ܗܲܘܢ ܵܩܐ ܣܢܝܩܘܵܝܲܬܝܗܝ ܕܵܠܐ ܵܝܗܲܒܠܵܬܐ ܕ̰ܟܘ ܵܗܵܩܐ ܵܩܐ ܲܡܠܟܘܵܬܐ. ܵܩܐ ܵܐܵܓܵܠܹ̈ܖܹܐ ܸܒܕ ܵܦܐܸܫ ܝܘܗܵܒܐ ܥܘܦܵܪܐ ܟܵܡܐ ܕܵܠܙܸܡ ܝܹܠܗ)ܲܐܝܟ ܲܡܚܲܫܚܵܬܐ ܕܫܘܠܵܛܵܢܐ( ܵܩܐ ܲܚܝܘܲܬܝܗܝ. ܙܘܵܗܵܪܐ ܕ1: ܐܸܢ ܥܘܦܵܪܐ ܕܸܦܵܠܢ ݇ܐܵܢܵܫܐ ܦܝܵܫܐ ݇ܗܵܘܐ ܙܒܝܵܢܐ ܒܙܘܹ̈ܙܹܐ)ܵܡܐܠ( ܕܵܓܢܹܗ: ܘܵܐܵܗܐ ܸܒܕ ܵܦܐܸܫ ܡܫܘܪܸܵܪܐ ܲܝܢ ܡܘܙܸܒܵܛܐ ܒܲܘܹ̈ܵܖܹܩܐ ܹ̈ܖܘܫܵܡܝܹܐ ܵܐܲܢܢܵܩܝܹܹ̈ܐ: ܵܗܝܵܓܗ ܒܘܵܫܝܘܵܬܐ ܕܵܗܕܵܟܐ ܥܘܦܵܪܐ ܸܒܕ ܲܐܹ̈ܖܵܒܹܒܐ 44 ܫܡܝܪܡ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 34܇2018 14 ܵܦܝܵܫܐ ܫܩܝܠܵܬܐ ܸܡܢܹܗ ܒܲܝܕ ܫܘܠܵܛܵܢܐ ܐܝܵܢܐ ܛܝܵܡܐ ܕܲܐܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܲܐܹ̈ܖܵܥܬܹܐ ܫܩܝܹܹ̈ܠܐ: ܸܒܕ ܵܦܐܸܫ ܡܘܕܝܸܵܪܐ)ܝܘܗܵܒܐ( ܵܩܐ ܵܡܵܪܐ ܕܥܘܦܵܪܐ. ܙܘܵܗܵܪܐ ܕ2: ܟܲܠܝܗܝ ܵܕܸܘܠܝܹܵ̈ܬܹܐ45 ܟܝܵܵܢܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܲܐܝܟ ܲܕܗܵܒܐ: ܹܣܐܵܡܐ: ܵܪܴܸܸܣܣ46: ܵܟܘܡܘܪ ܘܵܐܢ݇ܝ ܕܝܵܢܐ ܵܓܘ ܲܡܥܵܕܹ̈ܢܹܐ47 ܐܘܦ ܙܹܐ ܵܓܘ ܲܡܝܹ̈ܫܹܐ)ܵܥܹܹ̈ܒܐ( ܘܲܡܝܹ̈ܵܐ ܲܡܥܵܕܵܢܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܘܲܫܪ. ܟܲܠܝܗܝ ܲܐܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܸܒܕ ܵܦܝܫܝ ܫܩܝܹܹ̈ܠܐ ܘܝܘܗܹܹ̈ܒܐ ܵܩܐ ܲܡܠܟܘܵܬܐ ܲܐܝܟ ܵܡܐܠ ܕܲܥܡܵܡܐ ܘܬܚܲܘܬ ܡܲܕܒܵܪܢܘܵܬܐ ܕܫܘܠܵܛܵܢܐ ܲܥܡܵܡܝܵܐ. 6- ܟܠ ܲܚ݇ܕ ܒܪܲܘܵܢܐ ܘܒܵܪܵܬܐ ܕܲܥܡܵܡܐ ܵܐܬܘܵܪܵܝܐ: ܸܒܕ ܵܗܘܝ ܵܒܵܪܵܒܪ ܠܢܸܣܲܒܬ ܕܵܩܢܲܘܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܕܵܐܬܘܪ ܸܚܐܪܵܬܐ: ܲܗܝ ܕܹܠܐ ܵܗܘܹܐ ̰ܟܘ ܦܘܪܫܘܢܝܵܐ ܹܒܝܠ ܲܥܬܝܵܪܐ ܘܸܡܣܟܝܵܢܐ: ܘܹܒܝܠ ܲܦܵܠܹܹ̈ܚܐ ܘܲܐܵܟܹ̈ܖܹܐ ܘ݇ܐܸܚܹ݇̈ܖܢܹܐ: ܟܲܠܝܗܝ ܲܥܡܹ̈ܵܖܢܹܐ ܬܚܲܘܬ ܗܘܟܵܡܐ ܕܵܐܬܘܪ ܚܹܐܪܵܬܐ ܸܒܕ ܵܗܘܝ ܲܐܚ̰ܟܝ ܒܲܢܹ̈ܝ ܲܐܬܵܪܐ ܘܒܲܢܹ̈ܝ ܲܐܬܵܪܐ ܚܹܐܹ̈ܖܹܐ. 7- ܸܒܕ ܵܦܝܫܝ ܝܘܗܹܹ̈ܒܐ ܘܚܘܡܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܒܵܟܡܝܠܘܵܬܐ ܠܹܚܐܪܘܵܬܐ)ܵܐܵܙܕܘܵܬܐ( ܵܩܐ ܸܡܠܵܬܐ، ܲܗܡܲܙܡܵܬܐ، ܛܵܒܥܵܬܐ، ܲܬܚܲܡܢܝܹܵ̈ܬܹܐ)ܹ̈ܖܸܥܝܵܢܹܐ(: ܟܢܘܫܝܹܵ̈ܬܹܐ ܦܹ̈ܖܝܫܹܐ: ܚܘܵܝܹ̈ܕܹܐ)ܫܘܬܵܐܹܹ̈ܣܐ(: ܘܲܡܒܲܛܠܵܬܐ ܕܫܘ݇ܓܵܠܐ ܲܥܡ ܐܘܵܕܹܠܐ ܥܘܬܹ̈ܖܹܐ 45 ܵܪܸܨܨ، ܪܵܨܵܨܐ، ܣܲܘܪܒ 46 ܚܸܦܹ̈ܖܹܐ، ܲܡܥܲܕܢ 47 ܫܡܝܪܡ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 34܇2018 15 ܒܲܫܪܵܛܐ ܐܸܢ ܐܝܵܩܵܪܐ ܘܸܫܵܡܐ ܨܵܦܝܝ ܕ݇ܐܵܢܹ̈ܫܹܐ ܵܦܐܸܫ ܚܘܡܝܵܐ: ܕܵܩܲܬܝܗܝ ܵܠܐ ܵܡܛܹܐ ܲܚ݇ܕ ܙܵܝܵܢܐ. 8- ܵܝܗܲܒܠܵܬܐ ܕܵܗܵܩܐ ܕܲܡܠܟܘܵܬܐ ܸܒܕ ܵܦܐܸܫ ܡܘܬܵܒܐ ܲܥܠ ܩܵܕܵܠܐ ܕܟܲܠܝܗܝ ܲܥܡܹ̈ܵܖܢܹܐ ܕܵܐܬܘܪ ܚܹܐܪܵܬܐ ܕܵܠܐ ܗܸ̰ܟ ܦܘܪܫܘܢܝܵܐ ܐܝܵܢܐ ܒܠܲܚܡܵܬܐ ܠܵܡܐܠ ܐܘܦ ܩܵܢܝܵܬܐ ܙܘܵܙܵܢܝܵܬܐ)ܦܵܪܵܥܐ( ܕܟܠ ܲܚ݇ܕ. 9- ܵܐܲܢܢܵܩܝܵܬܐ ܝܵܠܲܗ ܵܩܐ ܕܟܲܠܝܗܝ ܲܝܹܠܹ݇̈ܕܐ ܘܒܵܢܹ̈ܬܹܐ ܕܹܠܐ ܝܵܢܐ ܸܡܛܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܲܥܠ 15 ܸܫܹ̈ܢܹܐ: ܵܦܝܫܝ ܩܘܒܹܹ̈ܠܐ ܵܓܘ ܲܡܕܹܲ̈ܖܫܝܵܬܹܐ ܕܵܐܬܘܪ ܚܹܐܪܵܬܐ ܕܵܠܐ ܗܸ̰ܟ ܲܥܪܲܩܠܵܬܐ. 10- ܦܵܪܫܵܬܐ ܕܵܟܗܢܘܵܬܐ)ܩܹܠܝܪܝܩܝ( ܡܢ ܲܚܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܕܵܐܬܘܪ ܚܹܐܪܵܬܐ. ܲܗܪ ܲܥܡ ܕܵܐܵܗܐ، ܵܟܗܢܘܵܬܐ ܹܠܐ ܵܗܘܹܐ ܵܠܲܗ ̰ܟܘ ܵܗܩܘܵܬܐ ܕܵܚܒܵܛܐ ܵܓܢܘܲܗ ܘܵܥܒܵܪܐ ܵܓܘ ܫܘ݇ܓܵܠܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܐܘܡܵܬܵܢܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܐܘܦ ܙܹܐ ܫܘ݇ܓܵܠܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܕܕܵܝܢܵܬܐ. 11- ܸܒܕ ܵܦܐܸܫ ܫܘܬܐܸܵܣܐ ܲܚ݇ܕ ܲܓܵܒܐ ܣܲܘܣܝܵܠ ـ ܕܝܡܘܩܵܪܵܛܝܵܐ ܵܩܐ ܡܲܕܒܵܪܢܘܵܬܐ)ܲܬܓܲܒܪܵܬܐ( ܕܟܲܠܝܗܝ ܲܦܵܠܹܹ̈ܚܐ ܒܵܩܐܸܡ ܘܒܲܕܥܬܝܕ: ܲܐܝܟ ܝܘܠܵܦܵܢܐ ܘܚܘܪܵܙܐ ܕܵܡܪܟܣ ܘܐܸܢܓܸܠܣ. 12- ܡܲܒܲܛܠܵܬܐ ܕܲܡܵܕܵܬܐ )ܲܡܕܵܐܹ̈ܬܹܐ( ܕܐܝܬ ܵܓܲܘܝܗܝ ܵܢܵܗܩܘܵܬܐ: ܒܲܣܲܒܒ ܕܟܹܐ ܵܦܝܫܝ ܡܘܬܹܹ̈ܒܐ ܲܥܠ ܩܵܕܵܠܐ ܕܲܦܵܠܹܹ̈ܚܐ ܸܡܣܟܝܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܐܘܦ ܲܐܵܟܹ̈ܖܹܐ. ܫܡܝܪܡ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 34܇2018 16 13- ܵܩܝܲܘܵܡܐ ܕܟܲܠܝܗܝ ܐܸܡܵܘܹ̈ܬܹܐ ݇ܐܸܚܹ݇̈ܖܢܹܐ ܕܸܒܥܵܡܵܪܐ ܝܵܢܐ ܵܓܘ ܵܐܬܘܪ ܚܹܐܪܵܬܐ: ܐܝܬ ܠ݇ܗܲܘܢ ܡܘܡܟܘܢܘܵܬܐ ܕܵܚܝܝ ܒܵܥܵܕܹ̈ܬܹܐ: ܥܝܹܵ̈ܕܹܐ ܘܲܫܹ̈ܖܲܥܬܹܐ ܕܵܓܲܢܝܗܝ. ܐܝܵܢܐ ܵܐܢܝ ܵܓܲܪܓ ܵܦܝܫܝ ܕܸܹ̈ܖܝܹܐ ܬܚܲܘܬ ܵܩܢܲܘܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܕܵܐܬܘܪ ܸܚܐܪܵܬܐ: ܕܸܒܕ ܵܥܒܪܝ ܠܵܓܘ ܲܚܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܡܢ ܵܒ݇ܬܪ ܕܵܦܝܫܝ ܩܘܒܹܹ̈ܠܐ ܒܲܝܕ ܟܢܘܫܝܵܐ ܪܸܵܫܝܵܐ ܵܐܬܘܵܪܵܝܐ. 14- ܒܟܵܠܲܗ ܲܐܬܵܪܐ ܕܵܐܬܘܪ ܚܹܐܪܵܬܐ ܸܠܵܫܵܢܐ ܵܐܬܘܵܪܵܝܐ ܵܓܲܪܓ ܵܦܐܸܫ ܡܘܩܪܵܝܐ ܵܓܘ ܲܡܕܹܲ̈ܖܫܝܵܬܹܐ. 15- ܵܠܙܸܡ ܝܵܠܲܗ ܦܵܪܣܵܬܐ ܕܹ̈ܖܸܥܝܵܢܹܐ ܥܗܝܹ̈ܕܹܐ ܵܓܵܘܐ ܕܲܥܡܵܡܐ ܵܐܬܘܵܪܵܝܐ ܒܸܡܨܵܥܝܘܵܬܐ ܕܲܫܬܲܐܣܵܬܐ ܵܓܘ ܟܲܠܝܗܝ ܵܐܬܘܹ̈ܵܖܝܹܐ ܠܲܦܥܵܘܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܕܚܘܵܝܵܕܐ ܐܘܡܵܬܵܢܝܵܐ: ܲܓܵܒܝܵܬܐ ܠܣܝܵܥܹ̈ܬܹܐ ܲܐܝܢܝ ܕܲܘܟܝܲܠܝܹ̈ܗܝ ܸܒܕ ܵܦܝܫܝ ܫܘܕܪܹܐ ܠܲܫܪܘܟܹܐ ܵܓܘ ܟܢܘܫܝܵܐ ܪܸܵܫܝܵܐ ܐܘܡܵܬܵܢܝܵܐ. 16- ܲܗܲܕܪܵܬܐ ܠܵܓܲܢܢ: ܵܩܐ ܕܵܥܒܲܪܚ ܵܓܘ ܲܐܝܵܟܵܢܝܘܵܬܐ ܕܫܵܠܵܡܐ: ܕܸܒܕ ܵܫܸܩܠ ܐܝܬܘܵܬܐ ܡܢ ܵܒ݇ܬܪ ܦܵܠܵܫܐ: ܵܩܐ ܕܲܐܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܟܵܠܝܹܵ̈ܬܹܐ ܐܘܦ ܹ̈ܖܸܥܝܵܢܹܐ ܵܦܝܫܝ ܡܘܕܥܸܝܹܐ ܵܩܐ ܝܘܪܘܦ: ܒܟܢܘܫܝܵܐ ܕܫܵܠܵܡܐ ܲܕܥܬܝܕ. 17- ܲܫܲܕܪܵܬܐ ܕܬܪܹܝ ܲܘܟܝܹܹ̈ܠܐ ܹ̈ܖܘܫܵܡܝܹܐ ܒܸܫܵܡܐ ܕܚܘܵܝܵܕܐ ܕܵܐܬܘܪ ܚܹܐܪܵܬܐ ܠܸܟܣ ܟܢܘܫܝܵܐ ܥܗܝܵܕܐ: ܵܩܐ ܲܬܲܡܡܵܬܐ ܠܢܝܵܫܐ ܐܘܡܵܬܵܢܝܵܐ ܘܫܵܩܠܵܬܐ ܕܙܸܕܹܹ̈ܩܐ ܕܲܥܡܵܡܐ ܵܐܬܘܵܪܵܝܐ. 18- ܲܫܲܕܪܵܬܐ ܕܲܚ݇ܕ ܲܝܢ ܬܪܹܝ ܲܘܟܝܹܹ̈ܠܐ ܠܲܐܹܡܝܪܝܵܟܐ: ܵܩܐ ܓܵܪܫܵܬܐ ܠܵܐܬܘܹ̈ܵܖܝܹܐ ܕܵܐܵܗܐ ܲܐܬܵܪܐ: ܠܵܓܘ ܚܘܵܝܵܕܐ ܕܵܐܬܘܪ ܚܹܐܪܵܬܐ. ܲܗܪ ܵܗܕܵܟܐ ܫܡܝܪܡ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 34܇2018 17 ܙܹܐ ܵܐܲܢܢܵܩܝܵܬܐ ܝܵܠܲܗ ܓܵܪܫܵܬܐ ܠܵܓܘ ܚܘܵܝܵܕܐ ܥܗܝܵܕܐ: ܠܵܐܬܘܹ̈ܵܖܝܹܐ ܕܹܒܝܬ ܲܢܗܹ̈ܖܹܝܢ: ܕܵܡܘܸܨܠ: ܢܨܝܒܝܢ ܐܘܦ ܙܹܐ ܠܵܐܬܘܹ̈ܵܖܝܹܐ ܕܪܘܣܝܵܐ ܘܲܫܪ. 19- ܵܠܙܸܡ ܝܵܠܲܗ ܛܵܒܥܵܬܐ ܕܚܵܕܐ ܦܲܪܣܵܬܐ ܕܚܘܵܝܵܕܐ ܕܵܐܬܘܪ ܚܹܐܪܵܬܐ ܵܩܐ ܕܒܸܡܨܵܥܝܘܬܘܲܗ ܵܦܝܫܝ ܡܘܕܥܸܝܹܐ ܘܡܘܥܸܒܪܹܐ ܠܵܓܘ ܲܚܝܹܹ̈ܐ: ܠܝܘܬܵܪܵܢܐ ܕܚܹܐܪܘܵܬܐ)ܵܐܵܙܕܘܵܬܐ(. 20- ܵܠܙܸܡ ܝܵܠܲܗ ܲܡܪܲܝܙܵܬܐ ܕܲܬܲܗܹ̈ܖܹܐ ܲܬܲܗܹ̈ܖܹܐ ܕܲܡܡܠܹܹ̈ܠܐ: ܬܵܦܩܝܹܵ̈ܬܹܐ ܘܵܫܘܵܬܦܘܵܝܹ̈ܬܹܐ: ܐܘܦ ܙܹܐ ܲܡܪܲܝܙܵܬܐ ܕܲܛܲܐܠܝܹܵ̈ܬܹܐ ܕܲܡܣܵܪܵܚܐ48: ܵܩܐ ܲܬܲܡܡܵܬܐ ܕܢܝܹ̈ܫܹܐ ܐܘܡܵܬܵܢܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܥܗܝܹ̈ܕܹܐ. ܡܒܘܥܐ: 1- ̰ܦܪܝܕܘܢ ܐܬܘܪܝܐ ܘܕܟܪܐ ܕܐܡܐܐ ܕܒܘܝܢܐ ܕܐܘܪܡܝ܇ܠܘܪܢܣ ܢܕܪ܇ ܡܓܠܬܐ ܐܹ̈ܫܠܝ ܢܨܒܐ ܕܘܒܩܐ ܬܪܝܢܐ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 1܇ ܦ:187 ܬܸܵܐܛܪܲܘܢ 48 ܫܡܝܪܡ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 34܇2018 18 ܘܪܕܐ ܐܕܝܣܘܢ ܐܒܪܗܝܡܝ ܵܫــܩــܵܝܹ̈ܬܹܐ ܕܡـܝܹ̈ܵܐ ܡـܛــــܘܵܪܐ ܸܒـــــܨܵܠــܵܝـــــــܐ ܠــܲܘܹ̈ܖܝــــܕܹܐ ܕܒـܪܝـــــܵܬܐ ܡܢ ܲܚـܝܹܹ̈ـܐ ܡـܵܠـܝܵـــــܐ ܒــܕܸܫــــܵܬܐ ܘܵܕܹ̈ܵܖܬܹܐ ܡܝܹ̈ܵــــــܐ ܲܒـܩــܒـــܘܹܩــــــܐ ܒـܸܠـܵܒــܐ ܕܲܒܥܝܵــܹ̈ܢܹـــــܐ ܲܬܪܵܥـــܐ ܲܬܩܬܘܹܩــــــܐ ܢܘܵܗܵܪܐ ܵܝــــܗܵܒــــــܐ ܒــܵܢــــܵܬܐ ܕܲܫـܡـܵܥــܵܢـــــܐ ܕܲܚــܝܹܹ̈ـܐ ܸܟܹ̈ܖܝܸـــܐ ܝܵܢــــܐ، ܲܐܝܟ ܲܢـــܗܵܪܐ ܥܵܒـــܵܪܐ ܲܛـܹ̈ܖܦـܘܢܹـــܐ ܕܲܘܪܵܕܐ ܒـܪܸܚـܵܫـــܐ ܒـܵܫـܩــܝـــܵܬܐ ܒـܘܠܒܘܠ ܲܦܟـܘܲܪܝــܗܝ ܒܲܚـ݇ܕ ܸܠܵܒــܐ ܝܩـܝـܵܕܐ ܲܚܒܵܪܐ ܕܲܚـܝـــܘܲܗ ݇ܗܵܘܐ ܒܲܚܕܘܵܬܐ ܘܸܚــܵܫــــܐ ܒܵܦـܘܵܚــــܐ ܕܬܸܫـܹ̈ܖܸܝܹـــܐ ܲܥܠ ܡܝܹ̈ܵــܐ ܒܪܸܚـܵܫـــܐ ܲܗܩـܝܵـــܹ̈ܬܹܐ ܕܲܚـܝـــܘܲܗ ܒـܵܢــــܬܘܗܝ ܬܘܢـܝܵܬܐ ܫܡܝܪܡ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 34܇2018 19 ܸܡــ݇ܢـܕܪܸ݇ܫ ܸܒـܛـܵܠـܵܩــــܐ ܒــܲܠــܹ̈ܦܹܐ ܕܲܚـܝــــܘܵܬܐ ܒــــܐܸܹܸ̈ܡܐܐ ܲܗܩــܲܝـــــܹ̈ܬܹܐ ܛـــܘܹܹ̈ܒܐ ܕܸܠــܒــــܵܘܬܹܐ ܛܠܝܩـܠ݇ܗܲܘܢ ܡܢ ܵܚــܬܸܪ ܚܘ݇ܠܸܠــܐ ܒـܲܢܗܹ̈ܖܵܘܬܹܐ ܵܦـܘܹ̈ܚܹــــܐ ܲܚܝـܵܠـܹ̈ܢܹــــܐ، ܡܝܹ̈ܵـــــܐ ܕܲܢــــــܗܹ̈ܖܵܘܬܹܐ ܵܠـܐ ܫܒܝـܩـܠــ݇ܗܲܘܢ ܕܲܘܪܵܕܐ ܵܚܝܸـــܐ ܒܕܸܫـܝܵـــܹ̈ܬܹܐ ܒܐܘܪܵܚــܐ ܕܕܵܝܪܬܘܗܝ ܒܘܠܒܘܠ ܒܵܣـܒـܵܪܢــܝ ܙܵܡـܹ̈ܖܵܝــــܬܹܐ ܲܚـــــ݇ܕܹ̈ܬܹܐ ܸܒـــــܕ ܲܡܠـܸܚــܵܡــܢــــܝ ܵܐܸܦܢ ܕܲܚܝـــܘܗܝ ݇ܗܵܘܘ ܸܟܹ̈ܖܝܹــــܐ ܒــܵܕܐܗ ܕܸܫـــܵܬܐ ܡܲܐܝܟ ܚܵܕܐ ܵܟܠـܘ ݇ܗܵܘܐ ܡܘܠܸܒܫـܵܬܐ ܦܪܝܫـܵܬܐ ܲܥܠ ܲܦــــܐܵܬܐ ܕܒـܵܢـــܹ̈ܬܹܐ، ܸܚــــܬܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܘܲܟـܵܠـــܹ̈ܬܹܐ ܡܢ ܵܓــܢܘܗܝ ܕܵܟــܵܪܐ ܫܒـܝـܩـܸܠـܗ ܠـܲܦــܐܬܵܘܹ̈ܬܹܐ ܸܠܒـܵܘܹ̈ܬܸܐ ܩـܢܸــܐ ܸܠܗ، ܸܠـܵܒــܐ ܵܠܐ ܫـܡـܝـܛܸܠـܗ ܠـܕܸܫـܵܬܐ ܡܘܠܸܒܫـܸܠܗ، ܲܚـ݇ܕ ܕܵܟܵܪܐ ܫܒܝܩـܸܠـܗ ܸܟܬܵܘܐ ܒـܸܠܒــܘܗܝ، ܒܲܝܕ ܲܦــܐܵܬܐ ܦـܬܝܚــܵܬܐ ܒܘܠܒـܘܠ ܡܘܠـܵܦــܐ ܸܠܗ ܕܵܙܡܵܪܐ ܵܓܚܲܘܟــܵܬܐ ܫܡܝܪܡ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 34܇2018 20 ܐܸܢ ܵܠܐ ݇ܗܘܹܐ ݇ܗܵܘܐ ܲܘܪܵܕܐ ܡܢ ܒܘܠܒܘܠ ܝܬܝܵܒܐ ܲܥܠ ܲܚـܝܹ̈ــــܘܗܝ ܛܠܝــــܹܹ̈ܩܐ ܵܝـܵܡـــܐ ܵܒܟܹܐ ݇ܗܵܘܐ ܵܫـܩـܝـــܵܬܐ ܕܲܚـܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܸܒܕ ܵܚـــܬܵܡــــܐ ܠـܝܵــܵܡـــــܐ ܵܐܸܦܢ ܕܟـܡܲܥـܪܸܩــܵܠــܲܗ ܒـܕܸܫـܝܵـــܹ̈ܬܹܐ ܡܵܠـܝܵـــــܐ ܸܠܵܒܐ ܕܵܠܐ ܪܓܝـܫـܸܠـܗ ܒܵܩـܵܠـــܐ ܕܙܵܡܹ̈ܖܵܝـــــܬܹܐ ܵܕܐܟܝ ܒܵܚـــܙܸܐ ܸܠـــܗ ܫــܘܦــــܵܪܐ ܕܕܸܫـܝܵـــܹ̈ܬܹܐ ܲܚـܝܹܸ̈ܐ ܲܐܝܟ ܲܢـــܗܵܪܐ ܸܒـــܕ ܵܚــܬܡـــܝ ܠـܝܵـܵܡـــܐ ܛـܘܵܒـــܐ ܠــܵܗܘ ܲܘܪܵܕܐ ܕܪܹܝـܚــܘܗܝ ܲܦܝܵܫـܵܢـــܐ ܫܡܝܪܡ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 34܇2018 21 ܕܫܢܐ ̰ܦܘܪܘܩ ̰ܦܪܘܚܙܐܕ ܦܘܫܩܐ ܡܢ ܦܪܣܝܬ: ܫܡܝܪܡ ܕ.ܦܘܪܝܐܢ ܵܐܵܢܐ ܡܢ ܵܣܵܟܐ ܕܲܠܝܹܠܐ ܲܨܘܘܬܹܐ ܝܵܘܢ ܵܐܵܢܐ ܡܢ ܵܣܵܟܐ ܕܸܚܫܲܘܵܟܐ ܘܡܢ ܵܣܵܟܐ ܕܲܠܝܹܠܐ ܲܨܘܘܬܹܐ ܝܵܘܢ ܐܸܢ ݇ܐܬܹܐ ܠܘܟ ܠܲܒܝܵܬܐ ܕܝ݇ܠܝ ܵܩܬܝ، ܵܝܐ ܡܲܪܚܵܡܵܢܐ ܫܵܪܵܓܐ ܲܡܝܸ݇ܬܬ ܘܚܵܕܐ ܵܟܘܵܬܐ ܕܸܡܢܘܲܗ ܵܓܫܵܩܢ ܠܸܚܒܵܨܐ49 ܕܵܥܠܲܘܵܠܐ ܕܲܛܒܲܓܕܘܵܬܐ ܚܠܝܨܘܵܬܐ ܕ݇ܐܵܢܹ̈ܫܹܐ، ܫܘܠܘܓܘܵܬܐ 49 ܫܡܝܪܡ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 34܇2018 22 ܡܬܹ̈ܠܐ ܕܡܠܠܐ ܢܨܪܐܠܕܝܢ ܝܘܢܬܢ ܒܝܬ ܣܘܠܝܡܢ ܡܬܠܐ ܟܝ ܲܚ݇ܕ ܵܝܘܵܡܐ ܲܡܠܵܠܐ ܲܢܨܪܲܐܠܕܝܢ ܝܬܝܵܒܐ ݇ܗܵܘܐ ܠܣܝܦܵܬܐ ܕܲܚ݇ܕ ܲܢܗܵܪܐ: ܡܢ ܵܢܓܸܣܵܬܢ ܥܸܣܵܪܐ ݇ܐܵܢܹ̈ܫܹܐ ݇ܐܬܹܐ ܠ݇ܗܲܘܢ ܕܵܥܒܪܝ ܡܢ ܲܢܗܵܪܐ: ܐܝܵܢܐ ܟܲܠܝܗܝ ܟܘܹ̈ܖܹܐ ݇ܗܵܘܘ: ܲܡܠܵܠܐ ܒܘܩܲܪܝܗܝ ܸܠܗ ܲܐܝܵܟܐ ܸܒܕ ܵܐܙ݇ܠܝܬܲܘܢ؟ ܵܐܢܝ ݇ܐܡܝܪ݇ܗܲܘܢ ܸܒܕ ܵܐܲܙ݇ܠܚ ܲܥܠ ܡܕܝ݇ܢܵܬܐ: ܲܡܠܵܠܐ ݇ܐܡܝܪܸܗ ܲܒܣ ܵܐܵܗܐ ܲܢܗܵܪܐ ܵܕܐܟܝ ܸܒܕ ܵܥܒܪܝܬܲܘܢ ܹܠܗ؟ ܡܘܩܸܘܚܠ݇ܗܲܘܢ ܒܲܚ݇ܕ ܵܩܵܠܐ ݇ܐܡܝܪ݇ܗܲܘܢ: ܲܡܠܵܠܐ ܚܵܠܦܘܟ ܵܗܲܘܚ ܕܹܐ ܲܡܥܸܒܲܪܢ ܡܢ ܲܢܗܵܪܐ: ܟܠ ݇ܐܵܢܵܫܐ ܸܒܕ ܵܝܗܲܒܚ ܠܘܟ ܲܚ݇ܕ ܵܫܗܝ. ܲܡܠܵܠܐ ݇ܗܘܹܐ ܸܠܗ ܵܪܐܙܝ ܒܵܐܵܗܐ ܸܡܢܕܝ: ܥܸ̰ܵܟܐ )ܬܸܫܵܥܐ( ܸܡܲܢܝܗܝ ܡܘܥܸܒܲܪܝܗܝ ܸܠܗ. ܒܵܗܘ ܕܥܸܣܵܪܐ ̰ܓܗܹܐ ܸܠܗ ܘܪܘܦܹܐ ܹܠܗ ܵܓܘ ܲܢܗܵܪܐ: ܲܟܕ ܸܒܚܵܢܵܩܐ ܘܸܒܕܵܪܵܝܐ ܵܗܵܘܪ ܚܢܝܩܠܝ: ݇ܐܡܝܪ݇ܗܲܘܢ ܵܩܐ ܲܡܠܵܠܐ: ܵܩܡܘܕܝ ܲܚܒܲܪܢ ܸܒܚܵܢܩܘܗܝ ܝܸܘܬ؟ ̰ܓܘܸܘܒܹܠܗ: ܹܠܐ ܝܸܘܢ ܸܒܚܵܢܩܘܗܝ: ܐܝܵܢܐ ܲܦܪܘܩܘܗܝ ܝܸܘܢ ܡܢ ܸܠܚܵܕܵܪܐ ܦܝܵܵܕܐ: ܐܝܵܬܐ ܲܐܚܬܲܘܢ ܸܒܚܵܫܵܒܐ ܝܬܲܘܢ ܕܹܠܐ ܝܸܘܢ ܫܡܝܪܡ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 34܇2018 23 ܲܡܥܒܘܪܘܗܝ ܲܨܵܠܲܡܬ ܡܢ ܲܢܗܵܪܐ: ܲܚ݇ܕ ܵܫܗܝ ܲܒܨܲܘܵܪܐ ܲܗ݇ܒܠܲܘܢ ܠܝ. ܡܬܠܐ ܟܛ ܲܚ݇ܕ ܵܝܘܵܡܐ ܲܡܠܵܠܐ ܲܢܨܪܲܐܠܕܝܢ ܲܥܡ ܲܒܟܬܘܗܝ ܝܬܝܹܹ̈ܒܐ ݇ܗܵܘܘ ܠܚܵܕܐ ܲܣܟܘ ܵܓܘ ܵܕܪܵܬܐ: ܲܒܟܬܘܗܝ ܵܪܵܒܐ ܡܘܲܙܲܡܬ ܥܒܝܕܵܠܲܗ )ܡܘܢܸܟܣܵܠܲܗ( ܲܥܠܘܗܝ: ݇ܐܡܝܵܪܲܗ ܲܡܠܵܠܐ ܲܚ݇ܕ̰ܵܟܐ ܪܚܲܘܫ ܠܵܗܘ ܓܸܵܒܐ: ܵܗܝܵܓܗ ܲܡܠܵܠܐ ܩܝܡܸܠܗ ܪܟܝܒܹܠܗ ܠܚܵܡܪܘܗܝ: ܪܚܝܫܹܠܗ ܐܘܪܵܚܐ ܕܲܚ݇ܕ ܲܩܝܵܣܐ ܪܸܚܵܩܐ ܡܢ ܲܒܝܵܬܐ: ܡܛܹܐ ܸܠܗ ܠܚܵܕܐ ܵܡܵܬܐ: ܲܚ݇ܕ ݇ܐܵܢܵܫܐ ܒܘܸܩܪܹܗ ܡܢ ܲܡܠܵܠܐ ܠܲܐܝܵܟܐ ܸܒܪܵܚܵܫܐ ܝܸܘܬ؟ ܲܡܠܵܠܐ ̰ܓܘܸܘܒܹܠܗ ݇ܐܡܝܪܸܗ: ܲܒܟܬܝ ݇ܐܡܝܵܪܲܗ ܪܚܲܘܫ ܠܵܗܘ ܓܸܵܒܐ ܡܢ ܕܸܦܢܝ: ܐܝܵܬܐ ܚܵܠܦܘܟ ܵܗܸܘܢ ܲܚ݇ܕ ܪܚܲܘܫ ܵܒܸܩܵܪܲܗ: ܲܒܵܣܐ ܲܝܢ ݇ܐܚܹ݇ܪܵܢܐ ܡܢ ܕܵܐܵܗܐ ܒܘܫ ܵܙܘܵܕܐ ܵܐܙܹ݇ܠܢ؟ ܡܬܐ ܠ ܲܚ݇ܕ ܵܝܘܵܡܐ ܲܡܠܵܠܐ ܲܢܨܪܲܐܠܕܝ̣ܢ ܲܙܒܘܢܹܐ ݇ܗܵܘܐ ܸܡܫܵܚܐ ܕܲܙܝܵܬܐ. ܲܚ݇ܕ ݇ܐܵܢܵܫܐ ܒܥܸܹܠܗ ܠܙܵܒܵܢܐ. ܲܡܠܵܠܐ ܙܹܐ ܸܚܩܵܪܐ ݇ܐܡܝܪܹܗ: ܙܲܘܪ ܸܡܫܵܚܐ ܕ݇ܐܵܟܵܠܐ ܝܹܠܗ. ܗܸ̰ܟ ܲܥܝܒ ܲܠܝܬ ܹܠܗ. ݇ܐܡܝܪܹܗ: ܵܐܦܹܢ ܕܐܲܘܪܘ̰ܓ ܝܘܹܢ ܐܝܵܢܐ ܸܡ݇ܢܕܪܸ݇ܫ ܸܒܕ ܵܙܒܢܹܢ. ܒ݇ܐܲܚܵܪܝܵܬܐ ܡܲܒܲܕܠܘܗܝ ܸܒܕ ܵܨܝܹܡܢ: ܲܟܕ ܫܸܡܥܹܠܗ ܲܡܠܵܠܐ ܠܕܲܐܢܹܐ ܲܚܒܹ̈ܖܹܐ، ݇ܐܡܝܪܹܗ ܠܵܗܘ ݇ܐܵܢܵܫܐ: ܕܘܙ ܙܸ݇ܠ ܐܹܢ ܲܐ݇ܢܬ ܲܕܝܵܢܐ ܕܲܐܵܠܵܗܐ ܐܘܚ̰ܵܟܐ ܕܸܲܪܢܓ ܒܝܵܗܒܘܗܝ ܝܸܘܬ، ܲܒܣ ܲܕܝܵܢܐ ܕܝܝ ܐܝܲܡܢ ܸܒܕ ܵܝܗܸܒܬ ܹܠܗ. ܫܡܝܪܡ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 34܇2018 24 ܡܬܠܐ ܠܐ ܲܚ݇ܕ ܵܝܘܵܡܐ ܲܡܠܵܠܐ ܲܢܨܪܲܐܠܕܝܢ ܙܒܝܢܹܗ ܲܚ݇ܕ̰ܵܟܐ ܸܒܣܵܪܐ ܡܘ݇ܬܝܹܐ ܹܠܗ ܠܲܒܝܵܬܐ. ܓܘܸܫܩܹܠܗ ܲܒܟܬܘܗܝ ܲܠܝܬ ݇ܗܵܘܐ ܲܒܝܵܬܐ: ܫܘܪܹܐ ܹܠܗ ܒܵܓܢܘܗܝ ܠܲܒܫܘܹܠܐ ܵܙܐܕ. ܡܢ ܵܒ݇ܬܪ ܲܚ݇ܕܟܵܡܐ ܲܚ݇ܕ ݇ܐܵܢܵܫܐ ܡܢ ܲܚܒܹ̈ܵܖܵܘܬܘܗܝ ݇ܐܬܹܐ ܠ݇ܗܲܘܢ ܠܸܟܣܠܘܗܝ ܵܩܐ ܒܘܬ ܥܵܒܕܵܬܐ ܕܲܗܲܢܓܘܵܬܐ ܲܥܡܘܗܝ. ܘܲܚ݇ܕ ܸܡܲܢܝܗܝ ܫܩܝܹܠܗ ܲܚ݇ܕ ܬܸܵܟܐ ܕܸܒܣܵܪܐ ݇ܐܟܝܹܠܗ: ݇ܐܡܝܪܹܗ: ܵܘܗ. ܗܸ̰ܟ ܸܡܠܵܚܐ ܲܠܝܬ ܹܠܗ! ܵܗܘ ݇ܐܸܚ݇ܪܵܢܐ ܙܹܐ ܫܩܝܹܠܗ ܲܚ݇ܕ ܬܸܵܟܐ ܘ݇ܐܟܝܹܠܗ. ݇ܐܡܝܪܹܗ: ܐܸܢ ܲܚ݇ܕ̰ܵܟܐ ܵܚܵܠܐ ܵܕܪܸܬ ܹܠܗ ܵܪܵܒܐ ܨܵܦܝܝ ܸܒܕ ܵܗܘܹܐ. ܵܗܘ ܕܬܵܠ݇ܬ ܫܩܝܹܠܗ ܲܚ݇ܕ ܬܸܵܟܐ ܘ݇ܐܟܝܹܠܗ ܘ݇ܐܡܝܪܸܗ: ܐܸܢ ܲܚ݇ܕ̰ܵܟܐ ܲܩܢܕ ܵܕܪܸܬ ܲܥܠܘܗܝ ܵܗܵܠܐ ܒܘܫ ܨܵܦܝܝ ܸܒܕ ܵܗܘܹܐ. ܲܡܠܵܠܐ ܓܘܸܫܩܹܠܗ ܕܸܒܣܵܪܐ ܸܒܦܵܪܵܩܐ ܝܹܠܗ ܡܵܓܘ ܵܩܵܙܢ̰ܵܟܐ. ܵܗܝܵܓܗ ܐܘܦ ܲܡܠܵܠܐ ܲܚ݇ܕ ܲܣܗܵܡܐ ܦܝܵܫܐ ܙܹܐ ܒܵܓܢܘܗܝ ̰ܓܢܝܒܹܠܗ ܹܐ ܘܡܚ ܹܠܗ ܵܓܘ ܦܘܡܘܗܝ. ݇ܐܡܝܪܹܗ ܐܸܢ ܵܓܘ ܵܩܵܙܢ̰ܵܟܐ ܕܲܝܢ ܙܹܐ ܲܚ݇ܕ̰ܟܐ ܸܒܣܵܪܐ ܵܦܝܸܫ ܵܐܵܗܐ ܡܢ ܟܲܠܝܗܝ ܒܘܫ ܨܵܦܝܝ ܸܒܕ ܵܗܘܵܝܐ ݇ܗܵܘܐ. ܡܬܠܐ ܠܒ ܲܚ݇ܕ ܵܝܘܵܡܐ ܲܡܠܵܠܐ ܲܢܨܪܲܐܠܕܝܢ ܝܬܝܵܒܐ ݇ܗܵܘܐ ܵܓܘ ܵܕܪܵܬܐ. ݇ܐܡܝܪܹܗ ܵܩܐ ܲܒܟܬܘܗܝ: ܲܚ݇ܕ̰ܵܟܐ ܓܘܒܵܬܐ ܲܡܝ݇ܬܝܠܝ ܒܲܠܚܵܡܐ ܵܐܟܸܠܢ ܲܣܲܒܒ ܵܡܵܪܐ ܕܩܘܲܘܬ ܝܵܠܲܗ، ܐܘܦ ܟܹܐ ܵܦܬܵܚܐ ܠܐܸܫܵܬ݇ܗܘ. ܵܗܝ ̰ܓܘܸܘܒܵܠܲܗ: ܓܘܒܵܬܐ ܲܠܝܬ ܲܠܢ. ܲܡܠܵܠܐ ݇ܐܡܝܪܹܗ: ܵܗܵܕܐ ܨܵܦܝܝ ܕܦܪܝܩܵܬܐ ܝܵܠܲܗ. ܲܣܲܒܒ ܕܟܹܐ ܫܡܝܪܡ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 34܇2018 25 ܲܡܚܪܸܵܒܐ ܠܐܸܣܛܘܡܵܟܐ. ܐܘܦ ܸܟܹ̈ܟܹܐ ܙܹܐ ܟܹܐ ܲܡܚܪܸܵܒܐ ܠ݇ܗܲܘܢ. ܲܒܟܵܬܐ ܙܹܐ ݇ܐܡܝܵܪܲܗ: ܠܕܲܐܝܢܝ ܡܢ ܕܲܐܢܹܐ ܬܪܹܝܢ ܲܚܒܹ̈ܖܘܟ ܲܗܸܡܵܢܢ. ݇ܐܡܝܪܹܗ: ܐܸܢ ܐܝܬ ܓܘܒܵܬܐ ܠܕܵܗܘ ܲܩ݇ܕܵܡܝܵܐ. ܐܸܢ ܠܲܝܬ ܓܘܒܵܬܐ ܠܕܵܗܘ ݇ܐܲܚܵܪܵܝܐ. ܡܬܠܐ ܠܓ ܲܚ݇ܕ ܵܝܘܵܡܐ ܲܚ݇ܕ ݇ܐܵܢܵܫܐ ̰ܟܝܕܹܠܗ ܠܲܡܠܵܠܐ ܲܢܨܪܲܐܠܕܝܢ ܕܵܐܬܹܐ ܠܲܒܝܬܘܗܝ. ܬܘܢܹܐ ܸܠܗ ܵܩܐ ܲܒܟܬܘܗܝ: ܲܚ݇ܕ̰ܵܟܐ ܬܹܐܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܲܡ݇ܬܝܸܡܲܘܢ ܵܩܐ ܲܡܠܵܠܐ. ܵܗܝ ܒܠܝܓܵܠܲܗ ܒܫܘ݇ܓܵܠܐ ݇ܐܸܚ݇ܪܵܢܐ. ܵܡܵܪܐ ܕܲܒܝܵܬܐ ܙܹܐ ܡܘܢܫܹܐ ܹܠܗ. ܵܓܘ ܕܵܗܝ ܨܲܘܗܲܒܬ ܚܠܝܵܬܐ، ܲܡܠܵܠܐ ܫܘܪܹܐ ܹܠܗ ܠܲܬܢܘܝܹܐ ̰ܲܓܹ̈ܖܓܹܐ ܡܢ ܩܘܪܵܐܢ. ܒܲܬܵܢܝܵܬܐ ܬܪܹܝܢ ܲܚܒܹ̈ܖܹܐ ܡܘܢܸܫܲܝܝܗܝ ܹܠܗ. ܵܗܝܵܓܗ ܵܡܵܪܐ ܕܲܒܝܵܬܐ ݇ܐܡܝܪܹܗ: ܬܪܹܝܢ ܲܚܒܹ̈ܖܹܐ ܡܘܢܸܫܲܝܝܗܝ ܠܘܟ. ܲܡܠܵܠܐ ̰ܓܘܸܘܒܹܠܗ ܘ݇ܐܡܝܪܹܗ: ܸܡܢܘܟ ܝܠܝܦܠܝ. ܲܐ݇ܢܬ ܙܹܐ ܬܹܐܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܡܘܢܸܫܲܝܝܗܝ ܠܘܟ. ܡܬܠܐ ܠܕ ܲܚ݇ܕ ܵܝܘܵܡܐ ܲܡܠܵܠܐ ܲܢܨܪܲܐܠܕܝܢ ݇ܗܘܹܐ ܹܠܗ ܲܚܒܵܪܐ ܲܥܡ ܲܚ݇ܕ ݇ܐܵܢܵܫܐ ܕܹܒܐܵܙܵܠܐ ݇ܗܵܘܐ ܠܙܵܝܲܪܬ. ܒܐܘܪܵܚܐ ܒܘܸܫܠ݇ܗܲܘܢ ܫܝܵܠܐ ܕܲܚܠܵܒܐ. ܵܗܘ ܲܚܒܪܘܗܝ ܲܗܲܢܓ̰ܟܝ ݇ܗܵܘܐ. ݇ܐܡܝܪܹܗ ܵܩܐ ܲܡܠܵܠܐ: ܵܐܵܢܐ ܵܓܘ ܲܣܗܵܡܐ ܕܵܓܢܝ ܸܒܕ ܵܕܪܸܢ ܲܩܢܕ. ܲܡܠܵܠܐ ̰ܓܘܸܘܒܹܠܗ ܘ݇ܐܡܝܪܹܗ: ܵܐܵܢܐ ܵܓܘ ܲܣܗܵܡܐ ܕܵܓܢܝ ܸܒܕ ܵܕܪܸܢ ܲܥܦܵܪܐ. ܲܚܒܪܘܗܝ ܓܘܸܫܩܹܠܗ ܫܘ݇ܓܵܠܐ ܚܒܝܛܹܠܗ، ܵܗܝܵܓܗ ݇ܐܡܝܪܹܗ: ܵܠܐ. ܵܠܐ ܕܪܝ ܲܥܦܵܪܐ. ܘܐܘܦ ܵܓܘ ܲܣܗܵܡܐ ܕܝܘܟ ܙܹܐ ܲܩܢܕ ܸܒܕ ܵܕܪܸܢ. ܫܡܝܪܡ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 34܇2018 26 ܡܲܕܥܵܟܢܘܵܬܐ50 ̣ܡܢ ܵܒܲܬܪ ܚܵܕܐ ܵܬܘܸܠܕܵܬܐ (Extinction is One Generation Away) ܕܟܬܪ ܡܕܠܝܢ ܕܝ݂ܒܣ ܒܲܕܥ݂ܲܒܪ: ܲܐܝܟ 30 ܸܫܹ̈ܢܹܐ ̣ܡܢ ܵܩ݇ܕܡ ܵܐܕܵܝܐ، ܐܝܵܡܢ ܕܵܩܪܵܝܢ ܗܵܘܐ ܵܓܘ ܡ݂ܲܓܠܹܹ̈ܠܐ51 ܵܐܬܲܘܹ̈ܵܖܝܹܐ ܲܝܢ ܵܫܡܵܥܢ ܗܵܘܐ ̣ܡܢ ܲܡܵܠܹܹ̈ܠܐ52 ܵܐܬܲܘܹ̈ܵܖܝܹܐ ܕܟܹܐ ܵܐܡܪܝ ݇ܗܵܘܘ: "ܐܘܡܲܬܢ ̣ܡܢ ܵܒ݇ܬܪ 50 ܸܫܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܸܒܕ ܵܦܫܵܪܐ"، ܹܠܐ ܲܗܸܡܵܢܢ ܗܵܘܐ ܘܟܹܐ ܵܬܢܝܵܢ ܗܵܘܐ ܕܹܠܐ ܝܵܠ̇ܗ ܸܡܬܵܗܘܵܝܢܵܬܐ53 ܘܲܐܢܹܐ ܲܟܵܬ݂ܹ̈ܒܹܐ ܘܲܡܵܠܹܹ̈ܠܐ ܵܪܵܒܐ ܡܹ̈ܖܝܵܡܢܹܐPessimists(54( ܘܲܓܫܵܩܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܠܓܹܵܒܐ ܸܚܫܵܟܵܢܐ ܕܲܚܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܝܵܢܐ. ܟܹܐ ܵܓܫܵܩܢ ܗܵܘܐ ܠܲܒܝܬܘܵܬܐ ܕܵܓܲܢܢ ܘܠܵܐܢܝ ܹ̈ܵܖܚܲܡܢ ܐܘܡܵܬܵܢܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܘܟܹܐ ܵܚܙܵܝܢ ܗܵܘܐ ܕܟܲܠܢ ܲܗܡܙܘܹܡܐ ܝܲܘܚ ܒܸܠܵܫܲܢܢ ܘܦܵܠܵܚܐ ܘܲܚܦܘܛܹܐ ܝܲܘܚ ܠܢܵܛܪܵܬܐ ܕܸܣܦܵܪܝܘܲܬܢ ܘܐܝܬܘܲܬܢ. ܵܐܦ ܟܹܐ ܵܚܫ݂ܵܒܢ ܗܵܘܐ ܕܸܚܙܵܡܲܢܢ ܒܲܐܬܹ̈ܵܖܵܘܬܹܐ ܢܲܘܟܹ̈ܵܖܝܹܐ ܵܗܕܵܟܐ ܝܵܢܐ. ܫܵܪܵܪܐ ܵܐܵܗܐ ܝܹܠܗ ܕܵܗܐ ̣ܡܢ 50 ܸܫܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܢܵܦܠܵܬܐ، ܣܚܝܦܘܵܬܐ 50 ܡܲܓܠܝܹܵ̈ܬܹܐ 51 ܲܗܡܙܸܵܡܹ̈ܢܹܐ 52 ܡܘܡܸܟܢ 53 ܒܝܫ ܲܣܒܵܪܐ 54 ܫܡܝܪܡ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 34܇2018 27 ̣ܡܢ ܵܩ݇ܕܡ ܵܐܕܵܝܐ ݇ܐܵܢܹ̈ܫܹܐ ܦܹ̈ܖܝܫܹܐ ܢܘܒܝܹܐ ܝܵܢܐ ܕܐܘܡܲܬܢ ܒܣܘܪܵܗ݂ܵܒܐ55 ܸܒܕ ܵܡܝܵܬܐ. ܐܝܵܢܐ 50 ܸܫܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܥ݂ܒܝܪܗܲܘܢ ܘܲܐܚܲܢܢ ܗܸܫ ܲܚܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܝܲܘܚ ܘܵܥ݂ܒܲܘܹ̈ܕܹܐ. ܐܝܵܢܐ ̣ܡܢ ܵܒ݇ܬܪ ݇ܐܵܬܝܬܝ ܠܲܐܹܡܝܪܝܵܟܐ ܚܙܹܐ ܠܝ ܒܲܥܝܵܢܐ ܕܵܓܢܝ ܕܵܐܢܝ ܲܦܹ̈ܖܨܲܘܦܹܐ ܡܹ̈ܖܝܵܡܢܹܐ ܬܪܘܵܨܐ ݇ܐܵܡܵܪܐ ܗܵܘܘ، ܒ̇ܗܝ ܕܒܲܢܹ̈ܝ ܐܘܡܲܬܢ ܠܲܐܵܟܐ )Generation( ܵܠܐ ̣ܡܢ ܵܒ݇ܬܪ 50 ܸܫܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܐܸܵܠܐ ̣ܡܢ ܵܒ݇ܬܪ ܚܵܕܐ ܵܬܘܸܠܕܵܬܐ ܸܒܕ ܵܦܫܪܝ. ܲܒܠܚܘܕ56 ܵܐܢܝ ܕܥܸܸܠܠ ̣ܡܢ 55 ܸܫܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܐܝܬ ܠܗܲܘܢ ܲܗܡܙܘܹܡܐ ܝܵܢܐ ܒܸܠܵܫܲܢܢ، ܘܟܲܠܝܗܝ ܵܝܲܠܝܹ̈ܗܝ ܘܵܢܸܘܲܓܝܹ̈ܗܝ ܹܠܐ ܵܝܕܥܝ ܹܠܗ ܸܠܵܫܲܢܢ ܘܐܸܢ ܙܹܐ ܫܢܘܙܵܝܐܝܬ57 ܲܚ݇ܕܟܵܡܐ ܵܝܕܥܝ ܹܠܗ: ܹܠܐ ܲܗܡܙܸܡܝ ܒܸܠܵܫܲܢܢ ܒ̇ܗܝ ܕܟܹܐ ܵܚܫ݂ܒܝ ܕܟܘܦܘܵܬܐ ܝܵܠ̇ܗ ܐܸܢ ܲܗܡܙܸܡܝ ܒܸܠܵܫܵܢܐ ܵܐܬܲܘܵܪܵܝܐ. ܵܐܢܝ ܸܒܚܵܬܵܪܐ58 ܝܵܢܐ ܕܵܗܘܝ ܲܐܹܡܝܹ̈ܖܝܵܟܝܹܐ ܘܸܒܢܵܟܵܦܐ ܝܵܢܐ ܒܐܘܡܲܬܢ. ܸܒܚܵܙܵܝܐ ܝܵܘܢ ܠܲܐܝܵܟܵܢܝܘܵܬܐ ܕܲܐܬܵܝܹ̈ܢܹܐ ̣ܡܢ ܐܝܵܪܢ: ܵܐܢܝ ܕܟܹܐ ܵܚܫ݂ܵܒܢ ܗܵܘܐ ܕܐܘܡܵܬܵܢܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܝܵܢܐ: ܒܵܢܲܬܝܹ̈ܗܝ ܹܠܐ ܝܵܢܐ ܓ݂ܒܝܹ̈ܖܹܐ، ܘܐܸܢ ܓ݂ܒܝܹ̈ܖܹܐ ܲܠܝܬ ܠܗܲܘܢ ܵܝܹܹ̈ܠܐ: ܘܒܢܘܲܢܝܹ̈ܗܝ ܓ݂ܒܝܹ̈ܖܹܐ ܝܵܢܐ ܠܢܘܟܹ̈ܵܖܵܝܬܹܐ. ܟܠ ̇ܡܢ ܕܡܝܵܵܬܐ ܝܹܠܗ ܲܠܝܬ ܲܚܕ ݇ܐܚܹ݇ܪܵܢܐ ܕܒܵܫܘܦܹܗ ܵܝܬܸ݂ܒ. ܲܗܠ 3 ـ 4 ܸܫܹ̈ܢܹܐ ̣ܡܢ ܵܩ݇ܕܡ ܵܐܕܵܝܐ ܵܓܘ ܸܡܫܬܘܵܝܹ̈ܬܹܐ ܘܲܫܗܹ̈ܵܖܵܘܬܹܐ ܘܫܪ. ܚܘܹ̈ܖܙܹܐ ܐܘܡܵܬܵܢܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܒܵܟܠܝ̮ܦܲܘܪܢܝܵܐ: ܲܚܕ ܸܡܢܝܵܵܢܐ ܓܘܵܪܐ ̣ܡܢ ܥܲܠܝܹܹ̈ܡܐ ܒܲܩܠܝܠܘܵܬܐ 55 ܲܐܚ̰ܟܝ 56 ܫܒܲܘܩ ܡܢ 57 ܸܒܙܵܝܵܪܐ ܝܵܢܐ 58 ܫܡܝܪܡ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 34܇2018 28 ܘܥܲܠܝܵܡܹ̈ܬܹܐ ܕܐܘܡܲܬܢ ܟܹܐ ܵܫܪܸܟܝ ܗܵܘܘ ܘܟܹܐ ܵܗܘܝ ܗܵܘܘ ܸܒܪܵܩܵܕܐ ܘܸܒܫܵܘܵܪܐ ܒܹ̈ܖܸܩܕܹܐ ܵܐܬܲܘܹ̈ܵܖܝܹܐ ܘܲܡܒܣܘܹܡܐ. ܵܐܵܘܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܟܹܐ ܵܗܘܝ ܗܵܘܘ ܸܡܠܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܘܙܡܝܹ̈ܛܹܐ ̣ܡܢ ܥܲܠܝܹܹ̈ܡܐ ܘܥܲܠܝܵܡܹ̈ܬܹܐ ܘܕܘܵܟܐ ܹܠܐ ܲܡܫܟܲܚܚ ܗܵܘܐ ܲܠܓ̰ܵܘ̰ܵܓܐ. ܐܝܵܢܐ ܵܐܕܵܝܐ ܵܐܵܘܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܲܦܠܲܓܝܗܝ ܣܦܝܵܩܐ ܝܹܠܗ: ܘܲܐܬܵܝܹ̈ܢܹܐ ݇ܐܵܢܹ̈ܫܹܐ ܵܡܵܪܐ ܕܸܫܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܝܵܢܐ ܘܫܢܘܙܵܝܐܝܬ ܸܒܚܵܙܵܝܐ ܝܲܘܚ ܠܥܲܠܝܵܡܹ̈ܬܹܐ ܘܵܪܵܒܐ ܒܘܫ ܲܚܕ̰ܵܟܐ ܠܥܲܠܝܹܹ̈ܡܐ. ܹܠܐ ܵܝܕܵܥܢ ܕܡܘܕܝ ܓܕܸܫܹܠܗ59 ܒܸܡܬܵܚܐ ܕܲܐܢܹܐ 3 ܲܝܢ 4 ܸܫܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܕܲܚܕ ܒܲܚܕ ܲܫܲܪܟܵܬܐ ܒܸܡܫܬܘܵܝܹ̈ܬܹܐ ܘܪܸܩܵܕܐ ܘܫܵܘܵܪܐ ܕܵܐܬܲܘܹ̈ܵܖܝܹܐ ܦܝܫܹܐ ܝܵܢܐ ܡܘܚܹ̈ܖܸܹܡܐ ܒܲܝܕ ܵܬܘܸܠܕܵܬܐ60 ܲܚ݇ܕܬܵܬܐ. ܲܫܪܝܵܪܐܝܬ ܸܒܚܵܙܵܝܐ ܝܵܘܢ ܕ̣ܡܢ ܵܒ݇ܬܪ ܵܡܘܵܬܐ ܕܵܬܘܸܠܕܵܬܐ ܕܥܸܸܠܠ ̣ܡܢ 55 ܸܫܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܟܲܠܝ ܵܥ݂ܒܲܘܕܵܘܹ̈ܬܹܐ ܐܘܡܵܬܵܢܝܹܹ̈ܐ ܸܒܕ ܵܟܠܝ ܘܹܠܐ ܵܝܕܵܥܢ ܵܡܢܝ ܸܒܕ ܵܦܸܠܛ ܵܡܵܪܐ ܲܥܠ ܵܐܵܘܲܢܹ̈ܢ ܘܥܘܡܹ̈ܵܖܲܢܢ. ܵܝܹܹ̈ܠܐ ܘܵܢܸܘܹ̈ܓܹܐ ܕܲܐܢܹܐ ܵܡܘܵܬܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܲܠܝܬ ܠܗܲܘܢ ܲܒܣܝܡܘܵܬܐ ܒܵܐܬܲܘܹ̈ܵܖܝܹܐ ܘܵܐܬܲܘܵܪܝܘܵܬܐ. ݇ܐܸܡܪܝ ܠܲܚܕ ݇ܐܵܢܵܫܐ ܕܐܝܬ ܹܠܗ ܵܙܘܵܕܐ ̣ܡܢ 80 ܸܫܹ̈ܢܹܐ، ܕܵܢܸܘܓܘܹ̈ܗܝ ܹܠܐ ܵܝܕܥܝ ܕܲܐܨܲܠܝܗܝ ܵܐܬܲܘܵܪܵܝܐ ܝܹܠܗ. ܘ̇ܗܘ ݇ܐܸܡܪܹܗ: "̣ܡܢ ܵܒ݇ܬܪ ܕܵܐܵܢܐ ܹܠܐ ܵܗܸܘܢ ܲܚܝܵܐ ܘܵܐܦ ܲܓܹ̈ܖܡܝ ܸܒܕ ܵܗܘܝ ܣܦܝܹܹ̈ܣܐ، ܹܠܐ ܵܝܕܥܸܢ ܘܹܠܐ ܵܪ݂ܓܸܫܢ ܕܵܐܢܝ ܡܘܕܝ ܲܬܚܡܘܢܹܐ ܝܵܢܐ." ܬܘܚܸܡܢܝ ܕ̇ܗܘ ܘ݇ܐܸܚܹ݇̈ܖܢܹܐ ܲܐܝܟ ܕ̇ܗܘ ܵܗܕܵܟܐ ܲܗܝܵܡܢܘܵܬܐ ܐܝܬ ܠܗܲܘܢ ܠܫ݂ܵܒܵܩܐ ܘܫ݂ܒܝܹܹ̈ܩܐ ܝܵܢܐ ܠܝܵܲܠܝܹ̈ܗܝ ܘܠܵܢܸܘܲܓܝܹ̈ܗܝ ܕܵܛܠܩܝ. ܩܘܘܸܡܹܠܗ 59 ܝܘܵܒܵܠܐ، ܲܙܪܥܝܵܬܐ 60 ܫܡܝܪܡ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 34܇2018 29 ܲܐܚܲܢܢ ܹܠܐ ܝܲܘܚ ܸܒܵܚܝܵܐ ܵܩܐ ܐܸܕܝܲܘܡ: ܵܩܐ ܲܒܣܝܡܘܵܬܐ ܘܪܵܘܵܚܢܝ ܕܵܓܲܢܢ. ܲܗܪ ܵܗܵܕܐ ܕܲܐ݂ܵܒܵܗܲܬܢ ܕ݂ܸܒܚܠܗܲܘܢ ܠܵܓܲܢܝܹ̈ܗܝ ܕܐܸܕܝܲܘܡ ܲܐܚܲܢܢ ܡܵܨܵܝܐ ܝܲܘܚ ܵܝܕܲܥܚ ܕܐܝܬ ܲܠܢ ̇ܗܝ ܲܝܪܬܘܵܬܐ61 ܒܘܫ ܥܸܵܠܝܵܬܐ ܘ̇ܗܘ ܸܠܵܫܵܢܐ ܒܘܫ ܲܥܬܝܵܩܐ ܘܥܸܵܠܝܵܐ ܵܓܘ ܬܸ݂ܒܹܝܠ: ܵܘܠܝܲܬܢ ܝܵܠ̇ܗ ܕܵܐܦ ܲܐܚܲܢܢ ܵܗܲܘܚ ܲܚ݇ܕ̰ܵܟܐ ܲܕ݂ܒܵܚܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܘܲܡܠܲܦܚ ܠܲܝܹ̈ܖܬܘܲܬܢ ܠܵܬܘܠܵܕܲܬܢ. ܐܝܵܢܐ ܦܵܫܵܡܐ ܝܵܘܢ ܕܲܡܪܕܘܵܬܐ ܕܐܸܕܝܲܘܡ ܕܲܐܬܹ̈ܵܖܵܘܬܹܐ ܲܡܥܹ̈ܖܵܒܝܹܐ ܹܠܐ ܝܵܠ̇ܗ ܒܝܵܗ݂ܵܒܐ ܦܘܪܵܣܐ ܠܐܸܡܵܘܹ̈ܬܹܐ ܙܥܲܘܹ̈ܖܹܐ ܕܵܢܛܪܝ ܠܐܝܬܘܲܬܝܹ̈ܗܝ. ܲܘܦܪܝܵܫܐܝܬ ܵܐܬܲܘܹ̈ܵܖܝܹܐ ܡܚܝܹܹ̈ܠܐ: ܵܐܢܝ ܕܲܠܝܬ ܠܗܲܘܢ ܚܵܕܐ ܲܦܪܨܘܵܦܝܘܵܬܐ ܲܚܝܵܠܢܵܬܐ، ܒܣܘܪܵܗ݂ܵܒܐ ܦܝܵܵܫܐ ܝܵܢܐ ܬܚܘܬ ܲܡܥ݂ܒܵܕܢܘܵܬܐ ܕܟܠ ܲܚܕ ܸܡܢܕܝ ܕܸܒܫܵܡܵܥܐ ܝܵܢܐ ܲܒܦܲܪܣ ـ ܸܚܙܹ̈ܘܹܐ ܘܵܓܘ ̮ܵܦܝܣܒܘܟ )Facebook( ܲܕܹ̈ܦܹܐ ܵܢܘܵܠܝܹܹ̈ܐ )Websites( ܘܫܪ. ܵܪܵܒܐ ̣ܡܢ ܵܐܬܲܘܹ̈ܵܖܝܹܐ ܕܲܐܹܡܝܪܝܵܟܐ ܚܝܵܝܵܐ ܝܵܢܐ ܵܩܐ ܐܸܕܝܲܘܡ ܘܵܩܐ ܵܓܲܢܝܹ̈ܗܝ. ܵܐܦ ܲܠܝܬ ܠܗܲܘܢ ܲܝܨܝܦܘܵܬܐCare(62( ܒܘܬ ܵܝܲܠܝܹ̈ܗܝ. ܵܐܢܝ ܟܹܐ ܵܙ݂ܒܢܝ ܲܗܡܸܒܪܓܸܪ )Hamburger( ܲܝܢ ܸܦܬܵܙܐ )Pizza( ܵܩܐ ݇ܐܵܟܠܲܪܡܵܫܐ ܕܵܝܲܠܝܹ̈ܗܝ ܘܟܹܐ ܵܫ݂ܒܩܝ ܠܗܲܘܢ ܵܩ݇ܕܡ ܦܵܪܣ ـ ܸܚܙܹ̈ܘܹܐ ܵܩܐ ܕܵܡܨܝ ܕܵܦܠܛܝ ܵܒ݇ܬܪ ܚܵܕܹܲ̈ܖܝܗܝ. ܲܡܠܵܦܹ̈ܢܹܐ ܕܵܝܲܠܝܹ̈ܗܝ، ܦܵܪܣ ـ ܸܚܙܹ̈ܘܹܐ ܝܵܢܐ. ܟܝܵܵܢܝܵܬܐ ܝܵܠ̇ܗ ܕܵܝܲܠܝܹ̈ܗܝ ܹܠܐ ܲܡܸܚܒܝ ܠܹܡܐܟܘܠܝܹܵ̈ܬܹܐ ܵܐܬܲܘܹ̈ܵܖܝܹܐ. ܵܗܕܵܟܐ ܲܐ݂ܵܒܹ̈ܗܹܐ ܐܸܢ ܲܫܪܸܟܝ ܒܚܘܹ̈ܖܙܹܐ ܵܐܬܲܘܹ̈ܵܖܝܹܐ ܹܠܐ ܵܠܒܠܝ ܠܝܵܲܠܝܹ̈ܗܝ ܙܥܲܘܹ̈ܖܹܐ ܒ̇ܗܝ ܕܹܠܐ ܡܝܲܪܬܵܓܪܘܵܬܐ 61 ܲܡܲܣܡܵܬܐ ܕܵܒܵܠܐ 62 ܫܡܝܪܡ܇ܡܢܝܢܐ 34܇2018 30 ܵܒܥܝ ܕܲܡܡܪܝ ܠܪܹܲܫܝܗܝ! ܟܝܵܵܢܐܝܬ ܵܝܲܠܝܹ̈ܗܝ ܹܠܐ ܵܝܠܦܝ ܕܡܵܫܘܬܸܦܝ63 ܲܥܡ ܵܐܬܲܘܹ̈ܵܖܝܹܐ ܘܐܝܵܡܢ ܕܲܓܪܘܘܹܣܐ ܝܵܢܐ ܹܠܐ ܵܒܥܝ ܕܵܚܙܝ ܠܸܚܙܵܡܲܢܝܹ̈ܗܝ ܘܵܐܦ ܵܠܐ ܠܲܐ݂ܵܒܲܗܝܹ̈ܗܝ! ܵܗܕܵܟܐ ܵܐܬܲܘܹ̈ܵܖܝܹܐ ܕܵܗܕܵܟܐ ܵܝܹܹ̈ܠܐ ܲܡܩܘܹܡܐ ܝܵܢܐ ܲܗܪ ܚܫܝܹܹ̈ܚܐ ܝܵܢܐ ܕܵܦܫܪܝ ܘܵܛܠܩܝ! )Substance( 64ܵܐܬܲܘܹ̈ܵܖܝܹܐ ܲܥܡܹ̈ܵܖܢܹܐ ܕܲܐܡܝܹܪܝܵܟܐ ܲܠܝܬ ܠܗܲܘܢ ܐܘܣܝܵܐ ܘܒܘܬ ܵܗܵܕܐ ܲܚ݇ܕ̰ܵܟܐ ܵܦܝܵܫܐ ܦܫܝܹ̈ܖܹܐ ܝܵܢܐ ܘܲܝܢ ܸܒܕ ܵܦܫܪܝ ̣ܡܢ ܵܒ݇ܬܪ

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